Sclerodermalike syndromes (SLSs) comprise diseases with mucin deposition (eg, scleromyxedema, scleredema), with eosinophilia (eg, eosinophilic fasciitis), metabolic or biochemical abnormalities (eg, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis), or endocrine disorders (eg, POEMS syndrome, or polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal lymphoproliferative disorder, and hypothyroidism). Chronic graft-versus-host disease may also show sclerodermalike skin changes. Inherited progeria syndromes with early aging (eg, Werner syndrome) and a heterogeneous group of hereditary disorders with either skin thickening (eg, stiff skin syndrome) or atrophy and tightening (eg, acrogeria) can also imitate classic systemic sclerosis (SSc). In addition, SLSs can be provoked by several drugs, chemicals, or even physical injury (eg, trauma, vibration stress, radiation). In SLSs, the distribution of skin involvement seems to be atypical compared with SSc. The acral skin involvement is usually missing, and lack of Raynaud phenomenon, scleroderma-specific antinuclear antibodies, the absence of scleroderma capillary pattern, and internal organ manifestations indicate the presence of an SLS. Skin involvement is sometimes nodular, and the underlying tissues can also be affected. For the differential diagnosis, a skin biopsy of the deeper layers including fascia and muscle is required. Histology does not always allow differentiation between SSc and SLSs; therefore, the diagnosis is often based on the distribution, quality of cutaneous involvement, and other accompanying clinical features.
|Journal||Clinics in Dermatology|
|Publication status||Accepted/In press - Jan 1 2019|
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