Schizophrenics know more than they can tell: Probabilistic classification learning in schizophrenia

Szaboles Kéri, O. Kelemen, G. Szekeres, N. Bagóczky, R. Erdélyi, A. Antal, G. Benedek, Z. Janka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

63 Citations (Scopus)


Background. Previous studies have demonstrated impaired explicit and preserved implicit memory functions in schizophrenia. However, it is less clear whether schizophrenics can learn complex information (e.g. probabilistic stimulus-response associations) with or without access for conscious recollection. In this study we applied a classification learning task to assess explicit and implicit processes concurrently. Methods. Two test procedures were administered to 40 schizophrenic subjects and 20 healthy volunteers: a probabilistic classification learning (PCL) task to evaluate implicit memory functions; and a category cue recognition test to investigate the explicit memory system. The PCL task included feedback guided category learning of geometrical shapes. These shapes were called category cues, predicting class membership with certain probabilities. The gradual increase of categorization performance during the feedback learning was a potentially implicit process, whereas the subsequent recognition of category cues required explicit memory functions. Results. The schizophrenic patients improved their categorization performance to a similar extent to the controls, but they failed to recognize the category cues. Memory performances were independent of the positive and negative symptoms. Conclusions. Patients with schizophrenia were able to establish representations of complex categories, but these remained unconscious. This is consistent with earlier reports, suggesting damaged explicit and spared implicit memory in schizophrenia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)149-155
Number of pages7
JournalPsychological Medicine
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 28 2000

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Schizophrenics know more than they can tell: Probabilistic classification learning in schizophrenia'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this