Role of unconformity-bounded units in the stratigraphy of the continental record: a case study from the Late Miocene of the western Pannonian Basin, Hungary

Marco Sacchi, F. Horváth, Orsolya Magyari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

83 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This paper is part of the special publication No.156, The Mediterranean basins: Tertiary extension within the Alpine Orogen. (eds B.Durand, L. Jolivet, F.Horvath and M.Seranne). We present an up-to-date stratigraphic framework for the Late Miocene (post-rift) non-marine strata of the western Pannonian Basin, based on unconformity-bounded units as they are derived from seismic interpretation. The data set used for this study consisted of some 1700 km of conventional, multi-channel reflection seismic profiles across western Hungary integrated by 190 km of high-resolution, single- channel seismic profiles acquired on Lake Balaton in June of 1993. Seismic stratigraphic analysis has been constrained by selected geological mapping, well-logs and borehole data. A magnetostratigraphic record was also available from a corehole in the study area, together with recent K/Ar dating of basaltic rocks from the Balaton highland. Five third-order (with 10 6 year periodicities) stratigraphic sequences have been recognized at regional scale in the Late Miocene succession of the western Pannonian Basin. We have designated these sequences, from bottom to top, as Sarmatian-1 (SAR-1) and Pannonian-1 (PAN-1) to Pannonian-4 (PAN-4). Reliable time constraints were only available for the two maximum flooding surfaces of sequences PAN-2 and PAN-3, namely mfs-2 (9.0 Ma) and mfs-3 (7.4 Ma), and the boundary of sequence PAN-2 (PAN-2 SB) which is approximately dated at 8.7 Ma. PAN-2 sequence boundary is associated with evidence of relative water-level drop in the Pannonian Lake and significant exposure of lake margins that is widely recorded in the so-called 'marginal facies' of western Hungary. The higher rank unit bounded by PAN-1 SB and PAN-4 SB includes most of the Pannonian s.l. succession of the central Paratethys and approximately correlates with the Tortonian-Messinian of the standard chronostratigraphy. Seemingly, no major palaeo-environmental impact was perceptible in the western Pannonian Basin during the Messinian salinity crisis of the Mediterranean. However a significant change in the regional stratigraphic patterns may be observed since earliest Pliocene (after PAN-4 SB), possibly associated with the very beginning of a large-scale tectonic inversion within the intra-Carpathian area. The case of Late Miocene non-marine strata of Pannonian Basin is a textbook example of how single categories of stratigraphic units do not fit (sometimes do not even approximate) chronostratigraphic correlation. The use of unconformity-bounded units offers new insights into the complex and long debated problem of stratigraphic correlation between Late Neogene deposits of the Pannonian Basin and 'similar' non-marine strata of the Central Paratethys realm. Our study shows that the so-called 'Pontian facies' of western Hungary correspond to an unconformity-bounded unit which is older than the Pontian s.s. facies of the stratotype area (Black Sea basin). Accordingly, we suggest that different stages may be used to discriminate between such similar-in-facies but different-in-age strata. We hence recommend the introduction of a new chronostratigraphic unit ('Danubian' or 'Transdanubian') in the Late Miocene series of Central Paratethys and a three-fold sub-division of the Pannonian (s.l.) strata into Early Pannonian (Pannonian s.s.), 'Middle Pannonian' ('Danubian' or 'Transdanubian') and Late Pannonian (Pontian s.s.) stages.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)357-390
Number of pages34
JournalGeological Society Special Publication
Volume156
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1999

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Stratigraphy
unconformity
Lakes
stratigraphy
Miocene
Paratethys
basin
Geochronology
Textbooks
Tectonics
Water levels
Boreholes
Messinian
Environmental impact
Deposits
Rocks
lake
inversion tectonics
chronostratigraphy
Tortonian

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ocean Engineering
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Geology

Cite this

@article{1d9ca05d795447a9a03031f4579570e2,
title = "Role of unconformity-bounded units in the stratigraphy of the continental record: a case study from the Late Miocene of the western Pannonian Basin, Hungary",
abstract = "This paper is part of the special publication No.156, The Mediterranean basins: Tertiary extension within the Alpine Orogen. (eds B.Durand, L. Jolivet, F.Horvath and M.Seranne). We present an up-to-date stratigraphic framework for the Late Miocene (post-rift) non-marine strata of the western Pannonian Basin, based on unconformity-bounded units as they are derived from seismic interpretation. The data set used for this study consisted of some 1700 km of conventional, multi-channel reflection seismic profiles across western Hungary integrated by 190 km of high-resolution, single- channel seismic profiles acquired on Lake Balaton in June of 1993. Seismic stratigraphic analysis has been constrained by selected geological mapping, well-logs and borehole data. A magnetostratigraphic record was also available from a corehole in the study area, together with recent K/Ar dating of basaltic rocks from the Balaton highland. Five third-order (with 10 6 year periodicities) stratigraphic sequences have been recognized at regional scale in the Late Miocene succession of the western Pannonian Basin. We have designated these sequences, from bottom to top, as Sarmatian-1 (SAR-1) and Pannonian-1 (PAN-1) to Pannonian-4 (PAN-4). Reliable time constraints were only available for the two maximum flooding surfaces of sequences PAN-2 and PAN-3, namely mfs-2 (9.0 Ma) and mfs-3 (7.4 Ma), and the boundary of sequence PAN-2 (PAN-2 SB) which is approximately dated at 8.7 Ma. PAN-2 sequence boundary is associated with evidence of relative water-level drop in the Pannonian Lake and significant exposure of lake margins that is widely recorded in the so-called 'marginal facies' of western Hungary. The higher rank unit bounded by PAN-1 SB and PAN-4 SB includes most of the Pannonian s.l. succession of the central Paratethys and approximately correlates with the Tortonian-Messinian of the standard chronostratigraphy. Seemingly, no major palaeo-environmental impact was perceptible in the western Pannonian Basin during the Messinian salinity crisis of the Mediterranean. However a significant change in the regional stratigraphic patterns may be observed since earliest Pliocene (after PAN-4 SB), possibly associated with the very beginning of a large-scale tectonic inversion within the intra-Carpathian area. The case of Late Miocene non-marine strata of Pannonian Basin is a textbook example of how single categories of stratigraphic units do not fit (sometimes do not even approximate) chronostratigraphic correlation. The use of unconformity-bounded units offers new insights into the complex and long debated problem of stratigraphic correlation between Late Neogene deposits of the Pannonian Basin and 'similar' non-marine strata of the Central Paratethys realm. Our study shows that the so-called 'Pontian facies' of western Hungary correspond to an unconformity-bounded unit which is older than the Pontian s.s. facies of the stratotype area (Black Sea basin). Accordingly, we suggest that different stages may be used to discriminate between such similar-in-facies but different-in-age strata. We hence recommend the introduction of a new chronostratigraphic unit ('Danubian' or 'Transdanubian') in the Late Miocene series of Central Paratethys and a three-fold sub-division of the Pannonian (s.l.) strata into Early Pannonian (Pannonian s.s.), 'Middle Pannonian' ('Danubian' or 'Transdanubian') and Late Pannonian (Pontian s.s.) stages.",
author = "Marco Sacchi and F. Horv{\'a}th and Orsolya Magyari",
year = "1999",
doi = "10.1144/GSL.SP.1999.156.01.17",
language = "English",
volume = "156",
pages = "357--390",
journal = "Geological Society Special Publication",
issn = "0305-8719",
publisher = "Geological Society of London",

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T1 - Role of unconformity-bounded units in the stratigraphy of the continental record

T2 - a case study from the Late Miocene of the western Pannonian Basin, Hungary

AU - Sacchi, Marco

AU - Horváth, F.

AU - Magyari, Orsolya

PY - 1999

Y1 - 1999

N2 - This paper is part of the special publication No.156, The Mediterranean basins: Tertiary extension within the Alpine Orogen. (eds B.Durand, L. Jolivet, F.Horvath and M.Seranne). We present an up-to-date stratigraphic framework for the Late Miocene (post-rift) non-marine strata of the western Pannonian Basin, based on unconformity-bounded units as they are derived from seismic interpretation. The data set used for this study consisted of some 1700 km of conventional, multi-channel reflection seismic profiles across western Hungary integrated by 190 km of high-resolution, single- channel seismic profiles acquired on Lake Balaton in June of 1993. Seismic stratigraphic analysis has been constrained by selected geological mapping, well-logs and borehole data. A magnetostratigraphic record was also available from a corehole in the study area, together with recent K/Ar dating of basaltic rocks from the Balaton highland. Five third-order (with 10 6 year periodicities) stratigraphic sequences have been recognized at regional scale in the Late Miocene succession of the western Pannonian Basin. We have designated these sequences, from bottom to top, as Sarmatian-1 (SAR-1) and Pannonian-1 (PAN-1) to Pannonian-4 (PAN-4). Reliable time constraints were only available for the two maximum flooding surfaces of sequences PAN-2 and PAN-3, namely mfs-2 (9.0 Ma) and mfs-3 (7.4 Ma), and the boundary of sequence PAN-2 (PAN-2 SB) which is approximately dated at 8.7 Ma. PAN-2 sequence boundary is associated with evidence of relative water-level drop in the Pannonian Lake and significant exposure of lake margins that is widely recorded in the so-called 'marginal facies' of western Hungary. The higher rank unit bounded by PAN-1 SB and PAN-4 SB includes most of the Pannonian s.l. succession of the central Paratethys and approximately correlates with the Tortonian-Messinian of the standard chronostratigraphy. Seemingly, no major palaeo-environmental impact was perceptible in the western Pannonian Basin during the Messinian salinity crisis of the Mediterranean. However a significant change in the regional stratigraphic patterns may be observed since earliest Pliocene (after PAN-4 SB), possibly associated with the very beginning of a large-scale tectonic inversion within the intra-Carpathian area. The case of Late Miocene non-marine strata of Pannonian Basin is a textbook example of how single categories of stratigraphic units do not fit (sometimes do not even approximate) chronostratigraphic correlation. The use of unconformity-bounded units offers new insights into the complex and long debated problem of stratigraphic correlation between Late Neogene deposits of the Pannonian Basin and 'similar' non-marine strata of the Central Paratethys realm. Our study shows that the so-called 'Pontian facies' of western Hungary correspond to an unconformity-bounded unit which is older than the Pontian s.s. facies of the stratotype area (Black Sea basin). Accordingly, we suggest that different stages may be used to discriminate between such similar-in-facies but different-in-age strata. We hence recommend the introduction of a new chronostratigraphic unit ('Danubian' or 'Transdanubian') in the Late Miocene series of Central Paratethys and a three-fold sub-division of the Pannonian (s.l.) strata into Early Pannonian (Pannonian s.s.), 'Middle Pannonian' ('Danubian' or 'Transdanubian') and Late Pannonian (Pontian s.s.) stages.

AB - This paper is part of the special publication No.156, The Mediterranean basins: Tertiary extension within the Alpine Orogen. (eds B.Durand, L. Jolivet, F.Horvath and M.Seranne). We present an up-to-date stratigraphic framework for the Late Miocene (post-rift) non-marine strata of the western Pannonian Basin, based on unconformity-bounded units as they are derived from seismic interpretation. The data set used for this study consisted of some 1700 km of conventional, multi-channel reflection seismic profiles across western Hungary integrated by 190 km of high-resolution, single- channel seismic profiles acquired on Lake Balaton in June of 1993. Seismic stratigraphic analysis has been constrained by selected geological mapping, well-logs and borehole data. A magnetostratigraphic record was also available from a corehole in the study area, together with recent K/Ar dating of basaltic rocks from the Balaton highland. Five third-order (with 10 6 year periodicities) stratigraphic sequences have been recognized at regional scale in the Late Miocene succession of the western Pannonian Basin. We have designated these sequences, from bottom to top, as Sarmatian-1 (SAR-1) and Pannonian-1 (PAN-1) to Pannonian-4 (PAN-4). Reliable time constraints were only available for the two maximum flooding surfaces of sequences PAN-2 and PAN-3, namely mfs-2 (9.0 Ma) and mfs-3 (7.4 Ma), and the boundary of sequence PAN-2 (PAN-2 SB) which is approximately dated at 8.7 Ma. PAN-2 sequence boundary is associated with evidence of relative water-level drop in the Pannonian Lake and significant exposure of lake margins that is widely recorded in the so-called 'marginal facies' of western Hungary. The higher rank unit bounded by PAN-1 SB and PAN-4 SB includes most of the Pannonian s.l. succession of the central Paratethys and approximately correlates with the Tortonian-Messinian of the standard chronostratigraphy. Seemingly, no major palaeo-environmental impact was perceptible in the western Pannonian Basin during the Messinian salinity crisis of the Mediterranean. However a significant change in the regional stratigraphic patterns may be observed since earliest Pliocene (after PAN-4 SB), possibly associated with the very beginning of a large-scale tectonic inversion within the intra-Carpathian area. The case of Late Miocene non-marine strata of Pannonian Basin is a textbook example of how single categories of stratigraphic units do not fit (sometimes do not even approximate) chronostratigraphic correlation. The use of unconformity-bounded units offers new insights into the complex and long debated problem of stratigraphic correlation between Late Neogene deposits of the Pannonian Basin and 'similar' non-marine strata of the Central Paratethys realm. Our study shows that the so-called 'Pontian facies' of western Hungary correspond to an unconformity-bounded unit which is older than the Pontian s.s. facies of the stratotype area (Black Sea basin). Accordingly, we suggest that different stages may be used to discriminate between such similar-in-facies but different-in-age strata. We hence recommend the introduction of a new chronostratigraphic unit ('Danubian' or 'Transdanubian') in the Late Miocene series of Central Paratethys and a three-fold sub-division of the Pannonian (s.l.) strata into Early Pannonian (Pannonian s.s.), 'Middle Pannonian' ('Danubian' or 'Transdanubian') and Late Pannonian (Pontian s.s.) stages.

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