Given the wide industrial use of chromium (Cr) and its environmental contamination, chromium represents a risk to humans exposed to the metal. Considering that Cr(VI) is a potent oxidizing agent that increases intracellular oxidation and DNA damage, it would be worth considering the pretreatment of cells with antioxidants as a means of preventing Cr(VI)-induced toxicity. The objective of this study was to pretreat yeast cells with the water-soluble vitamin E analogue Trolox in an effort to increase cell tolerance against reactive chromium and reactive oxygen species formed during Cr(VI) reduction. Results revealed a decrease in Cr(VI)-induced cytotoxicity and mitotic gene conversions in Trolox-pretreated cells. The protective effect of Trolox in Cr(VI) induced genotoxicity was confirmed also with the prokaryotic Salmonella typhimurium SOS/umu test. Pretreatment of cells with Trolox (1) increased total Cr bioaccumulation, (2) decreased Cr(VI)-induced intracellular oxidation, (3) decreased Cr(V) persistence and (4) increased OH • formation in yeast extracts. These findings might be useful in directing future investigations concerning the use of Trolox as a human antioxidant supplement, and in clinical applications related to Cr-induced genotoxicity in occupational and environmental situations where chromium is a problem.
- Free radicals
- Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Chemistry
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis