MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are highly conserved, small, 18–25 nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Each miRNA can regulate hundreds of target genes, and vice versa each target gene can be regulated by numerous miRNAs, suggesting a very complex network and explaining how miRNAs play pivotal roles in fine-tuning essentially all biological processes in all cell types in the liver. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis and diagnosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with an outlook to the broader aspects of metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, we discuss the role of miRNAs as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets in NAFLD/NASH.
ASJC Scopus subject areas