Kockázat-megosztási technikák alkalmazása a közepes jövedelmucombining double acute accent országokban

Translated title of the contribution: Risk sharing methods in middle income countries

András Inotai, Zolt́an Kaló

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

4 Citations (Scopus)


The pricing strategy of innovative medicines is based on the therapeutic value in the largest pharmaceutical markets. The cost-effectiveness of new medicines with value based ex-factory price is justifiable. Due to the international price referencing and parallel trade the ex-factory price corridor of new medicines has been narrowed in recent years. Middle income countries have less negotiation power to change the narrow drug pricing corridor, although their fair intention is to buy pharmaceuticals at lower price from their scarce public resources compared to higher income countries. Therefore the reimbursement of new medicines at prices of Western-European countries may not be justifiable in Central-Eastern European countries. Confidential pricing agreements (i.e. confidential price discounts, claw-back or rebate) in lower income countries of the European Union can alleviate this problem, as prices of new medicines can be adjusted to local purchasing power without influencing the published ex-factory price and so the accessibility of patients to these drugs in other countries. In order to control the drug budget payers tend to apply financial risk sharing agreements for new medicines in more and more countries to shift the consequences of potential overspending to pharmaceutical manufacturers. The major paradox of financial risk-sharing schemes is that increased mortality, poor persistence of patients, reduced access to healthcare providers, and no treatment reduce pharmaceutical spending. Consequently, payers have started to apply outcome based risk sharing agreements for new medicines recently to improve the quality of health care provision. Our paper aims to review and assess the published financial and outcome based risk sharing methods. Introduction of outcome based risk-sharing schemes can be a major advancement in the drug reimbursement strategy of payers in middle income countries. These schemes can help to reduce the medical uncertainty in coverage decisions for valuable innovative healthcare technologies. However risk-sharing schemes can also reduce the transparency of pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement, as the payback, and consequently the actual price per patient can be calculated only retrospectively. Therefore risk-sharing agreements can be interpreted as special forms of confidential pricing agreements to facilitate the implementation of differential pricing in middle income countries.

Original languageHungarian
Pages (from-to)43-52
Number of pages10
JournalActa pharmaceutica Hungarica
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - May 14 2012


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science

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