Risk-based management of environmental problems requires a careful selection and planning of the best risk management option, the monitoring of environmental, health, social and economic impacts, and finally the verification of the applied measures and technologies. The consecutive selection, planning, implementation, and verification of regulatory measures or technology applications require a tool battery which is adapted to the environmental activity to manage. Part of the impacts can be measured and characterized by absolute values such as monetized benefits. Others can be characterized on a relative scale by comparing them to each other or to a reference value. The evaluation can be prospective or retrospective. Verification of an environmental measure or technology is a generic regulatory process resulting in a certificate for a technology whose appropriateness and efficacy have been proved in general, or it may refer to a site-specific application, where the technology has either fulfilled the requirements or appeared to be capable of achieving the planned target. This chapter introduces the environmental risk assessment (ERA), socio-economic assessment (SEA), multi-criteria analysis (MCA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) tools. These tools are used for the assessment of environmental problems caused by chemical substances or contaminated sites, for the selection of the best possible risk reduction measure (comparative evaluation), monitoring the applied measure/technology (maintaining optimal operation), post-application assessment, and verification of the applied measure/technology by efficiency assessment and approval.
|Title of host publication||Engineering Tools for Environmental Risk Management|
|Subtitle of host publication||1. Environmental Deterioration and Contamination - Problems and their Management|
|Number of pages||86|
|Publication status||Published - Jan 1 2014|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Science(all)
- Chemical Engineering(all)