Risk factors for myocardial infarction in women and men

Insights from the INTERHEART study

Sonia S. Anand, Shofiqul Islam, Annika Rosengren, Maria Grazia Franzosi, Krisela Steyn, Afzal Hussein Yusufali, M. Keltai, Rafael Diaz, Sumathy Rangarajan, Salim Yusuf

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

400 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Aims: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of death among men and women globally. Women develop CHD about 10 years later than men, yet the reasons for this are unclear. The purpose of this report is to determine if differences in risk factor distributions exist between women and men across various age categories to help explain why women develop acute MI later than men. Methods and results: We used the INTERHEART global case-control study including 27 098 participants from 52 countries, 6787 of whom were women. The median age of first acute MI was higher in women than men (65 vs. 56 years; P <0.0001). Nine modifiable risk factors were associated with MI in women and men. Hypertension [2.95(2.66 -3.28) vs. 2.32(2.16-2.48)], diabetes [4.26(3.68-4.94) vs. 2.67(2.43-2.94), physical activity [0.48(0.41-0.57) vs. 0.77(0.71-0.83)], and moderate alcohol use [0.41(0.34-0.50) vs. 0.88(0.82-0.94)] were more strongly associated with MI among women than men. The association of abnormal lipids, current smoking, abdominal obesity, high risk diet, and psychosocial stress factors with MI was similar in women and men. Risk factors associations were generally stronger among younger individuals compared to older women and men. The population attributable risk (PAR) of all nine risk factors exceeded 94%, and was similar among women and men (96 vs. 93%). Men were significantly more likely to suffer a MI prior to 60 years of age than were women, however, after adjusting for levels of risk factors, the sex difference in the probability of MI cases occurring before the age of 60 years was reduced by more than 80%. Conclusion: Women experience their first acute MI on average 9 years later than men. Nine modifiable risk factors are significantly associated with acute MI in both men and women and explain greater than 90% of the PAR. The difference in age of first MI is largely explained by the higher risk factor levels at younger ages in men compared to women.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)932-940
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Heart Journal
Volume29
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2008

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Myocardial Infarction
Coronary Disease
Abdominal Obesity
Sex Characteristics
Population
Case-Control Studies
Cause of Death
Smoking
Alcohols
Exercise
Psychology
Diet
Hypertension
Lipids

Keywords

  • Global health
  • Myocardial infarction
  • Risk factors
  • Women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Anand, S. S., Islam, S., Rosengren, A., Franzosi, M. G., Steyn, K., Yusufali, A. H., ... Yusuf, S. (2008). Risk factors for myocardial infarction in women and men: Insights from the INTERHEART study. European Heart Journal, 29(7), 932-940. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehn018

Risk factors for myocardial infarction in women and men : Insights from the INTERHEART study. / Anand, Sonia S.; Islam, Shofiqul; Rosengren, Annika; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Steyn, Krisela; Yusufali, Afzal Hussein; Keltai, M.; Diaz, Rafael; Rangarajan, Sumathy; Yusuf, Salim.

In: European Heart Journal, Vol. 29, No. 7, 04.2008, p. 932-940.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Anand, SS, Islam, S, Rosengren, A, Franzosi, MG, Steyn, K, Yusufali, AH, Keltai, M, Diaz, R, Rangarajan, S & Yusuf, S 2008, 'Risk factors for myocardial infarction in women and men: Insights from the INTERHEART study', European Heart Journal, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 932-940. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehn018
Anand, Sonia S. ; Islam, Shofiqul ; Rosengren, Annika ; Franzosi, Maria Grazia ; Steyn, Krisela ; Yusufali, Afzal Hussein ; Keltai, M. ; Diaz, Rafael ; Rangarajan, Sumathy ; Yusuf, Salim. / Risk factors for myocardial infarction in women and men : Insights from the INTERHEART study. In: European Heart Journal. 2008 ; Vol. 29, No. 7. pp. 932-940.
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abstract = "Aims: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of death among men and women globally. Women develop CHD about 10 years later than men, yet the reasons for this are unclear. The purpose of this report is to determine if differences in risk factor distributions exist between women and men across various age categories to help explain why women develop acute MI later than men. Methods and results: We used the INTERHEART global case-control study including 27 098 participants from 52 countries, 6787 of whom were women. The median age of first acute MI was higher in women than men (65 vs. 56 years; P <0.0001). Nine modifiable risk factors were associated with MI in women and men. Hypertension [2.95(2.66 -3.28) vs. 2.32(2.16-2.48)], diabetes [4.26(3.68-4.94) vs. 2.67(2.43-2.94), physical activity [0.48(0.41-0.57) vs. 0.77(0.71-0.83)], and moderate alcohol use [0.41(0.34-0.50) vs. 0.88(0.82-0.94)] were more strongly associated with MI among women than men. The association of abnormal lipids, current smoking, abdominal obesity, high risk diet, and psychosocial stress factors with MI was similar in women and men. Risk factors associations were generally stronger among younger individuals compared to older women and men. The population attributable risk (PAR) of all nine risk factors exceeded 94{\%}, and was similar among women and men (96 vs. 93{\%}). Men were significantly more likely to suffer a MI prior to 60 years of age than were women, however, after adjusting for levels of risk factors, the sex difference in the probability of MI cases occurring before the age of 60 years was reduced by more than 80{\%}. Conclusion: Women experience their first acute MI on average 9 years later than men. Nine modifiable risk factors are significantly associated with acute MI in both men and women and explain greater than 90{\%} of the PAR. The difference in age of first MI is largely explained by the higher risk factor levels at younger ages in men compared to women.",
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AU - Franzosi, Maria Grazia

AU - Steyn, Krisela

AU - Yusufali, Afzal Hussein

AU - Keltai, M.

AU - Diaz, Rafael

AU - Rangarajan, Sumathy

AU - Yusuf, Salim

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N2 - Aims: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of death among men and women globally. Women develop CHD about 10 years later than men, yet the reasons for this are unclear. The purpose of this report is to determine if differences in risk factor distributions exist between women and men across various age categories to help explain why women develop acute MI later than men. Methods and results: We used the INTERHEART global case-control study including 27 098 participants from 52 countries, 6787 of whom were women. The median age of first acute MI was higher in women than men (65 vs. 56 years; P <0.0001). Nine modifiable risk factors were associated with MI in women and men. Hypertension [2.95(2.66 -3.28) vs. 2.32(2.16-2.48)], diabetes [4.26(3.68-4.94) vs. 2.67(2.43-2.94), physical activity [0.48(0.41-0.57) vs. 0.77(0.71-0.83)], and moderate alcohol use [0.41(0.34-0.50) vs. 0.88(0.82-0.94)] were more strongly associated with MI among women than men. The association of abnormal lipids, current smoking, abdominal obesity, high risk diet, and psychosocial stress factors with MI was similar in women and men. Risk factors associations were generally stronger among younger individuals compared to older women and men. The population attributable risk (PAR) of all nine risk factors exceeded 94%, and was similar among women and men (96 vs. 93%). Men were significantly more likely to suffer a MI prior to 60 years of age than were women, however, after adjusting for levels of risk factors, the sex difference in the probability of MI cases occurring before the age of 60 years was reduced by more than 80%. Conclusion: Women experience their first acute MI on average 9 years later than men. Nine modifiable risk factors are significantly associated with acute MI in both men and women and explain greater than 90% of the PAR. The difference in age of first MI is largely explained by the higher risk factor levels at younger ages in men compared to women.

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