Residual effects of previous nitrogen application in two Hungarian long-term field trials

E. Bircsák, P. Csathó, L. Radimszky, G. Baczó, T. Németh, I. Németh

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Abstract

Uniform long-term field trials were set up on two sites in the autumn of 1965 in a wheat-wheat-corn-corn rotation to investigate the direct effects of N at rates of up to 348 kg N ha-1. Site 1 (Keszthely) was a sandy loam Mollic Cambisol. Site 2 (Szentgyörgyvölgy) was a clay loam Stagnic Luvisol. The field trials were unchanged for 29 yr, until autumn 1994, when the initial "old" N application rates were discontinued, thus allowing the residual effects of the previous annual N rates to be evaluated. A new, or "recent" N application regime (0, 100, 150, and 200 kg N ha -1 year-1) was applied at each "old" N rate. From 1995 to 1997, the 3-year residual effect on the weight and N concentration of young plant samples, on grain yields, and on the nitrate contents of the 0-1 m soil profile were measured in early spring. In summer 1998, the nitrate contents of the 0-3 m soil profile were also measured. The effects of recent N applications on the above parameters were also determined for the old 87 and 348 kg N ha-1 rates. At Site 1, there was no NO3-N accumulation in the 0-1 or 0-3 m layers, as the residual effect of previous N applications. The recent application of 100-200 kg N ha-1 resulted in an accumulation peak at a depth of 2.5 m. However, there was a NO3-N accumulation peak at a depth of 1.5 m of the clay loam-textured soil profile at Site 2, as the result of old N applications, whereas recently applied 100-200 kg N ha-1 rates resulted in a slightly higher accumulation at the same depth. At neither site was there a significant increase in young plant weight or %N as the result of either residual, or recent N. However, the residual effect of the 29 yr of N application resulted in a 0.2-1.3 t ha -1 increase in the wheat grain yield in the first year at Site 1, and a 0.4-1.3 and 0.8-2.0 t ha-1 increase in corn yields in the second and third years, respectively. Effects of recently applied N were more pronounced. There were also substantial effects of recent and residual N on grain yields at Site 2. The residual effect of 29 yr of N application gave grain increases of 0.2-2.81 ha-1 in wheat in the first year and 1.1-2.8 and 0.0-1.1 t ha-1 in corn in the second and third years, respectively. The effects of recently applied N were again more pronounced. Although there was a significant residual effect of previous N applications even in the third year, the advantage of recently applied N over residual N increased with time.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)215-230
Number of pages16
JournalCommunications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis
Volume36
Issue number1-3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2005

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residual effects
field experimentation
Nitrogen
nitrogen
soil profiles
wheat
corn
grain yield
maize
clay
nitrates
soil profile
autumn
Soils
Nitrates
clay loam
application rate
effect
trial
nitrate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Soil Science
  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Plant Science
  • Analytical Chemistry

Cite this

Residual effects of previous nitrogen application in two Hungarian long-term field trials. / Bircsák, E.; Csathó, P.; Radimszky, L.; Baczó, G.; Németh, T.; Németh, I.

In: Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, Vol. 36, No. 1-3, 2005, p. 215-230.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bircsák, E. ; Csathó, P. ; Radimszky, L. ; Baczó, G. ; Németh, T. ; Németh, I. / Residual effects of previous nitrogen application in two Hungarian long-term field trials. In: Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis. 2005 ; Vol. 36, No. 1-3. pp. 215-230.
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