Background Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in diabetes and the risk is even greater in those with hypertension. Aims The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between CAN and 24-h blood pressure profile in normoalbuminuric patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods Seventy patients with Type 2 diabetes (31 without CAN, 39 with CAN), who had no history of hypertension, and 29 healthy volunteers underwent five standard cardiovascular reflex tests to assess autonomic function and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Results Twenty-four-hour mean systolic blood pressure, blood pressure load and hyperbaric impact values were significantly higher in diabetic patients with CAN compared with control subjects and diabetic patients without CAN (P < 0.05). In spite of normal clinic blood pressures, 54% of diabetic subjects with CAN and 29% without CAN were hypertensive (systolic blood pressure load > 20%, P < 0.05). In the diabetes group as a whole, Valsalva ratio, postural systolic blood pressure changes and diastolic blood pressure responses during sustained handgrip correlated significantly and negatively with 24-h mean systolic blood pressure (P < 0.01, P < 0.001, P < 0.05) and blood pressure load (P lt; 0.05, P < 0.001, P < 0.05). Conclusions Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is independently associated with hypertension in normoalbuminuric Type 2 diabetic patients with no history of hypertension. Relying on clinic blood pressures in subjects with CAN could lead to a failure to diagnose hypertension in over half of cases. All normotensive patients with CAN should be screened for hypertension using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in order to institute early aggressive interventions to improve their long-term outlook.
- Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy
- Diabetes mellitus
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism