Regulatory limits for pesticide residues in water (IUPAC technical report)

D. J. Hamilton, A. Ámbrus, R. M. Dieterle, A. S. Felsot, C. A. Harris, P. T. Holland, A. Katayama, N. Kuriharas, J. Linders, J. Unsworth, S. S. Wong, K. D. Racke, A. Klein, H. A. Kuiper, R. D. Wauchope, C. A. Bellin, E. Carazo, R. H. Gonzalez, C. Harris, H. G. Nolting & 8 others B. Petersen, S. Reynolds, B. Rubin, M. Russell, M. Skidmore, K. Tanaka, S. M. Yeh, B. W. Zeeh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

176 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

National governments introduced residue limits and guideline levels for pesticide residues in water when policies were implemented to minimize the contamination of ground and surface waters. Initially, the main attention was given to drinking water. Regulatory limits for pesticide residues in waters should have the following characteristics: definition of the type of water, definition of the residue, a suitable analytical method for the residues, and explanation for the basis for each limit. Limits may be derived by applying a safety factor to a no-effect-level, or from levels occurring when good practices are followed and also passing a safety assessment, or from the detection limit of an analytical method, or directly by legislative decision. The basis for limits and guideline values issued by WHO, Australia, the United States, New Zealand, Japan, Canada, European Union, and Taiwan is described, and examples of the limits are provided. Limits have been most commonly developed for drinking water, but values have also been proposed for environmental waters, effluent waters, irrigation waters, and livestock drinking waters. The contamination of ground water is of concern because it may be used as drinking water and act as a source of contamination for surface waters. Most commonly, drinking water standards have been applied to ground water. The same terminology may have different meanings in different systems. For example, guideline value (GV) in WHO means a value calculated from a toxicology parameter, whereas in Australia, a GV is at or about the analytical limit of determination or a maximum level that might occur if good practices are followed. In New Zealand, the GV is the concentration where aesthetic significance is influenced. The Australian health value (HV) is conceptually the same as the WHO GV. The New Zealand maximum acceptable value (MAV) and the Canadian maximum acceptable concentration (MAC) are also conceptually the same as the WHO GV. Each of the possible ways of defining the residues has its merits. A residue limit in water expressed as the sum of parent and toxicologically relevant transformation products makes sense where it is derived from the acceptable daily intake (ADI). For monitoring purposes, where it is best to keep the residue definition as simple as possible for the sake of practical enforcement and economy, the parent or a marker residue is preferable. It is also possible for parent and degradation products (hydrolysis and photolysis products and metabolites) to become physically separated as the water moves through soil strata, which suggests that separate limits should be set for parent and important degradation products. The Commission has made 12 recommendations for regulatory limits for pesticide residues in water. The recommendations will act as a checklist for authorities introducing or revising limits or guidelines for pesticide residues in water.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1123-1155
Number of pages33
JournalPure and Applied Chemistry
Volume75
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1 2003

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Pesticide Residues
Pesticides
Water
Drinking Water
Potable water
Groundwater
Contamination
Surface waters
Degradation
Safety factor
Photolysis
Terminology
Metabolites
Irrigation
Farms
Effluents
Hydrolysis
Health
Soils
Monitoring

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)

Cite this

Hamilton, D. J., Ámbrus, A., Dieterle, R. M., Felsot, A. S., Harris, C. A., Holland, P. T., ... Zeeh, B. W. (2003). Regulatory limits for pesticide residues in water (IUPAC technical report). Pure and Applied Chemistry, 75(8), 1123-1155.

Regulatory limits for pesticide residues in water (IUPAC technical report). / Hamilton, D. J.; Ámbrus, A.; Dieterle, R. M.; Felsot, A. S.; Harris, C. A.; Holland, P. T.; Katayama, A.; Kuriharas, N.; Linders, J.; Unsworth, J.; Wong, S. S.; Racke, K. D.; Klein, A.; Kuiper, H. A.; Wauchope, R. D.; Bellin, C. A.; Carazo, E.; Gonzalez, R. H.; Harris, C.; Nolting, H. G.; Petersen, B.; Reynolds, S.; Rubin, B.; Russell, M.; Skidmore, M.; Tanaka, K.; Yeh, S. M.; Zeeh, B. W.

In: Pure and Applied Chemistry, Vol. 75, No. 8, 01.08.2003, p. 1123-1155.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hamilton, DJ, Ámbrus, A, Dieterle, RM, Felsot, AS, Harris, CA, Holland, PT, Katayama, A, Kuriharas, N, Linders, J, Unsworth, J, Wong, SS, Racke, KD, Klein, A, Kuiper, HA, Wauchope, RD, Bellin, CA, Carazo, E, Gonzalez, RH, Harris, C, Nolting, HG, Petersen, B, Reynolds, S, Rubin, B, Russell, M, Skidmore, M, Tanaka, K, Yeh, SM & Zeeh, BW 2003, 'Regulatory limits for pesticide residues in water (IUPAC technical report)', Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol. 75, no. 8, pp. 1123-1155.
Hamilton DJ, Ámbrus A, Dieterle RM, Felsot AS, Harris CA, Holland PT et al. Regulatory limits for pesticide residues in water (IUPAC technical report). Pure and Applied Chemistry. 2003 Aug 1;75(8):1123-1155.
Hamilton, D. J. ; Ámbrus, A. ; Dieterle, R. M. ; Felsot, A. S. ; Harris, C. A. ; Holland, P. T. ; Katayama, A. ; Kuriharas, N. ; Linders, J. ; Unsworth, J. ; Wong, S. S. ; Racke, K. D. ; Klein, A. ; Kuiper, H. A. ; Wauchope, R. D. ; Bellin, C. A. ; Carazo, E. ; Gonzalez, R. H. ; Harris, C. ; Nolting, H. G. ; Petersen, B. ; Reynolds, S. ; Rubin, B. ; Russell, M. ; Skidmore, M. ; Tanaka, K. ; Yeh, S. M. ; Zeeh, B. W. / Regulatory limits for pesticide residues in water (IUPAC technical report). In: Pure and Applied Chemistry. 2003 ; Vol. 75, No. 8. pp. 1123-1155.
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