Solid organ transplantation has shown improvement in patient and graft survival rates due to the development of immunosuppression in the last fifty years; however only the last two decades led to the development of new, baseline immunosuppressive drugs that avoid the unlikely side effects of calcineurin inhibitors, especially nephrotoxicity. The transplanted organ is foreign to the host and, therefore, it induces a complex immune response of the recipient. In this review, a brief outline of immune response is given, followed by the introduction of new immunosuppressive drugs acting via variant pathways. These are compounds which are already in use or becoming shortly available and are potential future alternatives for the calcineurin inhibitors. This paper highlights the role of co-stimulation blockade with belatacept and the recently even more intensively studied field of tolerance induction.
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