A new, alternative form of the golden rule formula defining the nonadiabatic transition rate between two quantum states in condensed phase is presented. The formula involves the quantum time correlation function of the energy gap, of the nonadiabatic coupling, and their cross terms. Those quantities can be inferred from their classical counterparts, determined via molecular dynamics simulations. The formalism is applied to the problem of the nonadiabatic p → 5 relaxation of an equilibrated p-electron in water and methanol. We find that, in both solvents, the relaxation is induced by the coupling to the vibrational modes and the quantum effects modify the rate by a factor of 2-10 depending on the quantization procedure applied. The resulting p-state lifetime for a hypothetical equilibrium excited state appears extremely short, in the sub-100 fs regime. Although this result is in contrast with all previous theoretical predictions, we also illustrate that the lifetimes computed here are very sensitive to the simulated electronic quantum gap and to the strongly correlated nonadiabatic coupling.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry