Effects of O2, N2, Ar and He on the formation of micro- and nanostructured indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were investigated in pulsed Nd:YAG laser deposition on glass substrate. For O2 and Ar, ITO resistivity of ≤ 4 × 10-4 Ωcm and optical transmittance of > 90% were obtained with substrate temperature of 250 °C. For N2 and He, low ITO resisitivity could be obtained but with poor optical transmittance. SEM images show nano-structured ITO thin films for all gases, where dense, larger and highly oriented, microcrystalline structures were obtained for deposition in O2 and He, as revealed from the XRD lines. EDX results indicated the inclusion of Ar and N2 at the expense of reduced tin (Sn) content. When the ITO films were applied for fabrication of organic light emitting devices (OLED), only those deposited in Ar and O2 produced comparable performance to single-layer OLED fabricated on the commercial ITO.