Hormones, characteristic to higher ranked animals, are synthesized, stored, and secreted by unicellular eukaryote animals. The unicells also have receptors for recognizing these materials and transmit the message into the cells for provoking response. The hormones are effective in very low concentrations (down to 10–21 M) and opposite effects of lower and higher concentrations can be observed. However, sometimes linear concentration effects can be found, which means that hormesis exists, nevertheless uncertain, as it is in the phase of formation (evolutionary experimentation). Hormesis, by transformation (fixation) of cytoplasmic receptor-like membrane components to receptors in the presence of the given hormone, likely helps the development of unicellular endocrine character and by this the evolution of endocrine system. The effect by extremely low concentrations of hormones had been forced by the watery way of unicellular life, which could establish the physiological concentrations of hormones in the blood of higher ranked animals. This means that hormetic low doses are the normal, effective concentrations and the high concentrations are artificial, consequently could be dangerous.
- Hormone receptors
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)