Pharaonis halorhodopsin is a light-driven transport system for chloride, similarly to the previously described halorhodopsin, but we find that it transports nitrate as effectively as chloride. We studied the photoreactions of the purified, detergent-solubilized pharaonis pigment with a gated multichannel analyzer. At a physiological salt concentration (4 M NaCl), the absorption spectra and rate constants of rise and decay for intermediates of the photocycle were similar to those for halorhodopsin. In buffer containing nitrate, halorhodopsin exhibits a second, truncated photocycle; this difference in the photoreaction of the pigment occurs when an anion is bound in such a way as to preclude transport. As expected from the lack of anion specificity in the transport, the photocycle of pharaonis halorhodopsin was nearly unaffected by replacement of chloride with nitrate. All presumed buried positively charged residues, which might play a role in anion binding, are conserved in the two pigments. At the extracellular end of the presumed helix C, however, an arginine residue is found in halorhodopsin, but not in pharaonis halorhodopsin, and an arginine-rich segment between the presumed helices A and B in halorhodopsin is replaced by a less positively charged sequence in pharaonis halorhodopsin (Lanyi, J.K., Duschl, A., Hatfield, G.W., May K., and Oesterhelt D. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 1253-1260). One or both of these alterations may explain the difference in the anion selectivity of the two proteins.
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Journal of Biological Chemistry|
|Publication status||Published - Feb 15 1990|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology