Prolonging bovine sperm-oocyte incubation in modified medium 199 improves embryo development rate and the viability of vitrified blastocysts

T. L. Nedambale, F. Du, J. Xu, S. A. Chaubal, A. Dinnyes, W. Groen, D. Faber, J. R. Dobrinsky, X. Yang, X. C. Tian

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This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of four in vitro fertilization (IVF) media: Bracket and Oliphant's medium (BO), modified medium 199 (IVF-M199), modified Tyrode's medium (MTM), and modified KSOM (m-KSOM) on fertilization efficiency and blastocyst formation rate. In addition, we wanted to investigate the benefit of prolonging the IVF period (from 6 to 18 h) using the two most effective IVF media determined in our initial experiment; subsequently, blastocyst viability was assessed following vitrification. A higher incidence of polyspermic fertilization was observed in the MTM (6%) and in BO, in both the 6 and 18 h (7% and 11%, respectively) groups, than in the m-KSOM (1%) or in the IVF-M199 6 or 18 h (1 and 3%, respectively) groups. Cleavage rates were similar in BO, IVF-M199, and MTM 48 h post-fertilization; however, the lowest cleavage rate was observed for m-KSOM. A greater proportion of zygotes developed into 8-cell embryos in IVF-M199 than in other IVF media. Subsequently, a greater proportion of blastocyst formation and hatching was achieved in IVF-M199 (40% and 79%, respectively) or BO (35% and 74%, respectively) than in m-KSOM (18% and 58%, respectively) or MTM (22% and 66%, respectively). Prolonging IVF to 18 h did not alter cleavage rates; however, the highest rate of overall blastocyst formation was achieved in the IVF-M199 18 h (49%), rather than in the BO 18 h (20%) group. Vitrified/thawed blastocysts from IVF-M199 groups re-expanded and developed better, as compared to the BO 18 h group, and hatching rate and total cell number in IVF-M199 18 h group was comparable to the control groups (non-vitrified). Vitrification reduced survival compared to controls. In conclusion, IVF-M199 was successfully used for IVF, compared favorably to BO medium, and offered the advantage of an extended IVF period for up to 18 h that requires only one-half a dose of semen, and resulted in better quality blastocysts that endured vitrification with a hatching rate comparable to that of control groups.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1951-1960
Number of pages10
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2006



  • BO
  • Bovine
  • Fertilization
  • IVF-M199
  • Vitrification

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Small Animals
  • Food Animals
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Equine

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