Severe disease induced by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) was observed in three pigs originating from a large herd affected by respiratory and digestive signs as well as wasting. Proliferative and necrotising pneumonia (PNP) was diagnosed in two animals, while severe acute interstitial pneumonia characterised by the presence of abundant hyaline membrane in the alveoli and fibrin in the bronchioles was found in one pig. In all cases, large amounts of PCV2 antigen were found in each tissue sample collected from the lungs and mediastinal lymph nodes. Neither porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) nor swine influenza virus (SIV) was detected, and no bacteria could be cultured in any of the cases. Vascular lesions, e.g. degeneration of endothelial cells, perivascular and intramural oedema, fibrinoid necrosis, vasculitis, perivasculitis, and vascular thrombi were observed in all cases, associated with the presence of PCV2 antigen. The viral antigen was present in the intravascular mononuclear cells, endothelial cells, myocytes and infiltrating inflammatory cells in lymph and blood vessels. In one case, obliterating thrombi in the lymph and blood vessels were directly connected to areas of tissue necrosis and were associated with abundant PCV2 antigen. The results further suggest the causative role of PCV2 infection in PNP, and the importance of the vascular system in the pathogenesis of PCV2-associated diseases of swine.
- Porcine circovirus type 2
- Proliferative and necrotising pneumonia
- Vascular lesions
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