Progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF) modulates cytokine production by lymphocytes from women with recurrent miscarriage or preterm delivery

R. Raghupathy, E. Al-Mutawa, M. Al-Azemi, M. Makhseed, F. Azizieh, J. Szekeres-Bartho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

66 Citations (Scopus)


Spontaneous miscarriage and preterm delivery are common complications of pregnancy. Pro-inflammatory cytokines have been shown to be associated with recurrent spontaneous miscarriage (RSM) and preterm delivery (PTD) and these have led to exploration of ways to downregulate pro-inflammatory cytokines and/or to upregulate anti-inflammatory cytokines. Progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF) is a molecule with inhibitory effects on cell-mediated immune reactions. We have ascertained the effects of PIBF on secretion of selected type 1 and type 2 cytokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy non-pregnant women, women undergoing normal pregnancy, women with unexplained RSM and women with PTD. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 30 women with a history of unexplained RSM, 18 women undergoing PTD, 11 women with normal pregnancy and 13 non-pregnant healthy women were stimulated with a mitogen in the absence and presence of PIBF after which the levels of cytokines released into culture supernatants were determined by ELISA. Production of the type 2 cytokines IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 by lymphocytes from the RSM and PTD groups and of IL-4 and IL-10 by lymphocytes from healthy pregnant women was significantly increased upon exposure to PIBF, while the levels of type 1 cytokines were not affected. Ratios of type 1:type 2 cytokines were decreased, suggesting a shift towards Th2 bias. PIBF did not affect cytokine production by lymphocytes from non-pregnant women. Thus, PIBF acts on lymphocytes in pregnancy to induce a type 1 to type 2 cytokine shift by upregulating the production of type 2 cytokines.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)91-99
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Reproductive Immunology
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 2009


  • Cytokines
  • Preterm delivery
  • Progesterone-induced blocking factor
  • Recurrent spontaneous miscarriage
  • Th1
  • Th2

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology

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