Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are common nosocomial pathogens; however, until now they have been rarely encountered in Hungary. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of VRE in the teaching hospitals of the University of Debrecen. Of 7,271 Enterococcus-containing clinical samples collected between 2004 and 2009, we identified 16 VRE. Species-specific polymerase chain reaction was used to detect Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus casseliflavus, and Enterococcus gallinarum. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction was performed to identify the vancomycin resistance genes: vanA, vanB, vanC1/C2, vanD, vanE, and vanG. Restriction digestion with SalI and HindIII was introduced to differentiate the vanC1 and vanC2 genes from each other. Genetic relationships between the strains were investigated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Overall, we identified the vanC1 resistance gene in 14 E. gallinarum and the vanC2 resistance gene in two E. casseliflavus strains. Except for two samples, the isolates had different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types, suggesting sporadic emergence of the resistant bacteria. In addition, antibiotic resistance profile was determined by E-test. Three E. gallinarum strains proved to be resistant to gentamicin because of the presence of the aacA-aphD gene. Although the prevalence of VRE in Debrecen is rather low, the appearance of multiple resistances is of concern.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Microbiology (medical)