Prevalence and associated risk factors of periodic limb movement in sleep in two German population-based studies

András Szentkirályi, Ambra Stefani, Heinz Hackner, Maria Czira, Inga K. Teismann, Henry Völzke, Beate Stubbe, Sven Gläser, Ralf Ewert, Thomas Penzel, Ingo Fietze, Peter Young, Birgit Högl, Klaus Berger

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12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Study Objectives Periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) are frequent motor phenomena; however, population-based data are scarce. We assessed the prevalence of PLMS and factors associated with PLMS within two German population-based cohorts, the SHIP-TREND and BiDirect. Methods Single-night polysomnography was performed on 1107 subjects recruited from the general population (mean age: 52.9 years, 54.1% men) in the SHIP-TREND and on 247 participants (mean age: 57.6 years, 50.6% men) in the BiDirect. PLMS were evaluated using the standard criteria of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Sociodemographic data, behavioral variables, medical history, current medication, and other sleep disorders were assessed. Results The prevalence of PLMS index (PLMSI) >15/hour was 32.4% (SHIP-TREND) and 36.4% (BiDirect). In multivariable models, age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.05 per +1 year), male gender (OR = 2.20), restless legs syndrome (OR = 2.32), physical inactivity (OR = 1.52), current smoking (OR = 1.49), diabetes (OR = 2.13), antidepressant use (OR = 2.27), lower serum magnesium (OR per-0.1 mmol/L = 1.27) showed a positive, and the intake of beta-blockers an inverse association with PLMSI >15/hour in SHIP-TREND. In BiDirect, age (OR = 1.13 per +1 year), body mass index (OR = 1.11 per +1 kg/m 2), and restless legs syndrome (OR = 8.77) were significantly associated with PLMSI >15/hour. Conclusions A high PLMSI is frequent in the German population. Age, male gender, restless legs syndrome, physical inactivity, current smoking, obesity, diabetes, antidepressant use, and lower magnesium were independently associated with PLMSI >15/hour in at least one of the cohorts.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberzsy237
JournalSleep
Volume42
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 19 2019

Keywords

  • epidemiology
  • general population
  • periodic limb movements in sleep
  • polysomnography
  • restless legs syndrome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Physiology (medical)

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    Szentkirályi, A., Stefani, A., Hackner, H., Czira, M., Teismann, I. K., Völzke, H., Stubbe, B., Gläser, S., Ewert, R., Penzel, T., Fietze, I., Young, P., Högl, B., & Berger, K. (2019). Prevalence and associated risk factors of periodic limb movement in sleep in two German population-based studies. Sleep, 42(3), [zsy237]. https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/zsy237