Predictors of lymph node metastasis in surgically resected T1 esophageal cancer

Attila Dubecz, Marcus Kern, N. Solymosi, Michael Schweigert, Hubert J. Stein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

40 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background The application of endoscopic therapies for early cancers of the esophagus is limited by the possible presence of regional lymph node metastases. Our objective was to determine the prevalence and predictors of lymph node metastases in patients with pT1 carcinoma of the esophagus and the gastric cardia. Methods The National Cancer Institute's Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Database (2004 to 2010) was used to identify all patients with pT1 carcinomas who underwent primary surgical resection for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or adenocarcinoma (EAC) of the esophagus and of the esophagogastric junction (AEG). Prevalence of lymph node metastases was assessed, and survival in all types of cancer was calculated. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors predicting positive lymph node status. Results There were 1,225 patients (84% male), with a mean age of 64 ± 10 years, and 90% were white. Intramucosal disease was present in 44% of patients, and submucosal invasion (T1b) was present in 692 (56%). Prevalence of lymph node metastases in EAC, SCC, and AEG was 6.4%, 6.9%, and 9.5% for pT1a tumors and 19.6%, 20%, and 22.9% for pT1b tumors, respectively. In patients with more than 23 lymph nodes removed during resection, prevalence of lymph node metastases in EAC, SCC, and AEG was 8.1%, 25%, and 7.4% for pT1a tumors and 27.8%, 33.3%, and 22% for pT1b tumors, respectively. Positive lymph node status was associated with worse overall 5-year survival in EAC (N0 vs N+: 78% vs 52%) and AEG (N0 vs N+: 83% vs 44%) but did not have a significant effect on the long-term survival of patients with SCC. Infiltration of the submucosa, tumor size exceeding 10 mm, and poor tumor differentiation were independently associated with the risk of nodal disease. Prevalence of lymph node metastasis negative for these three risk factors was only 4.8%. Conclusions Prevalence of lymph node metastasis in early esophageal cancer is high in patients with T1 cancer. Inadequate lymphadenectomy underestimates lymph node status. Endoscopic treatment can be considered only in a select group of patients with early esophageal cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1879-1886
Number of pages8
JournalAnnals of Thoracic Surgery
Volume99
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 2015

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Esophageal Neoplasms
Lymph Nodes
Neoplasm Metastasis
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Neoplasms
Survival
Carcinoma
Esophagogastric Junction
Cardia
National Cancer Institute (U.S.)
Lymph Node Excision
Esophagus
Stomach
Epidemiology
Logistic Models
Databases

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Predictors of lymph node metastasis in surgically resected T1 esophageal cancer. / Dubecz, Attila; Kern, Marcus; Solymosi, N.; Schweigert, Michael; Stein, Hubert J.

In: Annals of Thoracic Surgery, Vol. 99, No. 6, 01.06.2015, p. 1879-1886.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Dubecz, Attila ; Kern, Marcus ; Solymosi, N. ; Schweigert, Michael ; Stein, Hubert J. / Predictors of lymph node metastasis in surgically resected T1 esophageal cancer. In: Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 2015 ; Vol. 99, No. 6. pp. 1879-1886.
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title = "Predictors of lymph node metastasis in surgically resected T1 esophageal cancer",
abstract = "Background The application of endoscopic therapies for early cancers of the esophagus is limited by the possible presence of regional lymph node metastases. Our objective was to determine the prevalence and predictors of lymph node metastases in patients with pT1 carcinoma of the esophagus and the gastric cardia. Methods The National Cancer Institute's Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Database (2004 to 2010) was used to identify all patients with pT1 carcinomas who underwent primary surgical resection for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or adenocarcinoma (EAC) of the esophagus and of the esophagogastric junction (AEG). Prevalence of lymph node metastases was assessed, and survival in all types of cancer was calculated. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors predicting positive lymph node status. Results There were 1,225 patients (84{\%} male), with a mean age of 64 ± 10 years, and 90{\%} were white. Intramucosal disease was present in 44{\%} of patients, and submucosal invasion (T1b) was present in 692 (56{\%}). Prevalence of lymph node metastases in EAC, SCC, and AEG was 6.4{\%}, 6.9{\%}, and 9.5{\%} for pT1a tumors and 19.6{\%}, 20{\%}, and 22.9{\%} for pT1b tumors, respectively. In patients with more than 23 lymph nodes removed during resection, prevalence of lymph node metastases in EAC, SCC, and AEG was 8.1{\%}, 25{\%}, and 7.4{\%} for pT1a tumors and 27.8{\%}, 33.3{\%}, and 22{\%} for pT1b tumors, respectively. Positive lymph node status was associated with worse overall 5-year survival in EAC (N0 vs N+: 78{\%} vs 52{\%}) and AEG (N0 vs N+: 83{\%} vs 44{\%}) but did not have a significant effect on the long-term survival of patients with SCC. Infiltration of the submucosa, tumor size exceeding 10 mm, and poor tumor differentiation were independently associated with the risk of nodal disease. Prevalence of lymph node metastasis negative for these three risk factors was only 4.8{\%}. Conclusions Prevalence of lymph node metastasis in early esophageal cancer is high in patients with T1 cancer. Inadequate lymphadenectomy underestimates lymph node status. Endoscopic treatment can be considered only in a select group of patients with early esophageal cancer.",
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T1 - Predictors of lymph node metastasis in surgically resected T1 esophageal cancer

AU - Dubecz, Attila

AU - Kern, Marcus

AU - Solymosi, N.

AU - Schweigert, Michael

AU - Stein, Hubert J.

PY - 2015/6/1

Y1 - 2015/6/1

N2 - Background The application of endoscopic therapies for early cancers of the esophagus is limited by the possible presence of regional lymph node metastases. Our objective was to determine the prevalence and predictors of lymph node metastases in patients with pT1 carcinoma of the esophagus and the gastric cardia. Methods The National Cancer Institute's Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Database (2004 to 2010) was used to identify all patients with pT1 carcinomas who underwent primary surgical resection for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or adenocarcinoma (EAC) of the esophagus and of the esophagogastric junction (AEG). Prevalence of lymph node metastases was assessed, and survival in all types of cancer was calculated. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors predicting positive lymph node status. Results There were 1,225 patients (84% male), with a mean age of 64 ± 10 years, and 90% were white. Intramucosal disease was present in 44% of patients, and submucosal invasion (T1b) was present in 692 (56%). Prevalence of lymph node metastases in EAC, SCC, and AEG was 6.4%, 6.9%, and 9.5% for pT1a tumors and 19.6%, 20%, and 22.9% for pT1b tumors, respectively. In patients with more than 23 lymph nodes removed during resection, prevalence of lymph node metastases in EAC, SCC, and AEG was 8.1%, 25%, and 7.4% for pT1a tumors and 27.8%, 33.3%, and 22% for pT1b tumors, respectively. Positive lymph node status was associated with worse overall 5-year survival in EAC (N0 vs N+: 78% vs 52%) and AEG (N0 vs N+: 83% vs 44%) but did not have a significant effect on the long-term survival of patients with SCC. Infiltration of the submucosa, tumor size exceeding 10 mm, and poor tumor differentiation were independently associated with the risk of nodal disease. Prevalence of lymph node metastasis negative for these three risk factors was only 4.8%. Conclusions Prevalence of lymph node metastasis in early esophageal cancer is high in patients with T1 cancer. Inadequate lymphadenectomy underestimates lymph node status. Endoscopic treatment can be considered only in a select group of patients with early esophageal cancer.

AB - Background The application of endoscopic therapies for early cancers of the esophagus is limited by the possible presence of regional lymph node metastases. Our objective was to determine the prevalence and predictors of lymph node metastases in patients with pT1 carcinoma of the esophagus and the gastric cardia. Methods The National Cancer Institute's Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Database (2004 to 2010) was used to identify all patients with pT1 carcinomas who underwent primary surgical resection for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or adenocarcinoma (EAC) of the esophagus and of the esophagogastric junction (AEG). Prevalence of lymph node metastases was assessed, and survival in all types of cancer was calculated. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors predicting positive lymph node status. Results There were 1,225 patients (84% male), with a mean age of 64 ± 10 years, and 90% were white. Intramucosal disease was present in 44% of patients, and submucosal invasion (T1b) was present in 692 (56%). Prevalence of lymph node metastases in EAC, SCC, and AEG was 6.4%, 6.9%, and 9.5% for pT1a tumors and 19.6%, 20%, and 22.9% for pT1b tumors, respectively. In patients with more than 23 lymph nodes removed during resection, prevalence of lymph node metastases in EAC, SCC, and AEG was 8.1%, 25%, and 7.4% for pT1a tumors and 27.8%, 33.3%, and 22% for pT1b tumors, respectively. Positive lymph node status was associated with worse overall 5-year survival in EAC (N0 vs N+: 78% vs 52%) and AEG (N0 vs N+: 83% vs 44%) but did not have a significant effect on the long-term survival of patients with SCC. Infiltration of the submucosa, tumor size exceeding 10 mm, and poor tumor differentiation were independently associated with the risk of nodal disease. Prevalence of lymph node metastasis negative for these three risk factors was only 4.8%. Conclusions Prevalence of lymph node metastasis in early esophageal cancer is high in patients with T1 cancer. Inadequate lymphadenectomy underestimates lymph node status. Endoscopic treatment can be considered only in a select group of patients with early esophageal cancer.

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