Four viruses were compared for their ability to induce an intestinal antibody response in piglets. Antibodies were not detected in response to oral vaccination with either fowlpox virus or a baculovirus (BV). Simultaneous oral dosing and parenteral inoculation with high concentrations of BV in an oil emulsion adjuvant induced high levels of circulating virus neutralising (VN) antibodies, and also low levels of intestinal antibodies when booster doses of virus were given. In response to oral vaccination with swinepox virus (SPV), low levels of circulating and intestinal VN antibodies, and higher titres of antibodies reactive in an enzyme immunoassay, including intestinal antibodies of the IgA class, were detected. Oral vaccination with porcine adenovirus type 3 (PAV-3) stimulated both circulating and intestinal VN antibodies, and IgA antibodies were demonstrated in the intestinal contents. It was concluded that SPV and PAV-3 might be suitable vectors for the expression of genes encoding the protective antigens of porcine enteric viruses.
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