Model reactions were carried out with components frequently used for the preparation of intercalated or exfoliated polypropylene (PP) nanocomposites. The results prove that maleinated polypropylene (MAPP) can react chemically with the surfactant applied for the organophilization of the filler, if this latter contains active hydrogen groups. The reaction of hexadecylamine (HDA) and MAPP was detected by MALDI-TOF spectroscopy, DSC measurements and FTIR spectroscopy. Anhydride groups are consumed and mainly amide groups form in the reaction. The formation of cyclic imides could not be proved by the techniques used. MAPP reacts also with the surfactant adsorbed on the surface of the silicate in ionic form. On the other hand, N-cetylpyridinium chloride (CPCl) not containing active hydrogen atoms does not react with maleinated PP. Intercalated or exfoliated composites could be prepared from the silicate organophilized with HDA, while microcomposites formed from the filler treated with CPCl. Chemical reactions remove the surfactant from the surface of MMT and hydrogenated silicate sites are left behind. The high energy surface interacts either with the anhydride or the amide groups by dipole-dipole interactions. Even the unmodified polypropylene chains may be attached much stronger to the surface by London dispersion forces than to the silicate covered with aliphatic chains. Although the effect of competitive adsorption (MAPP, HDA) and mutual solubility of the components (PP, MAPP, surfactant, reaction products) cannot be neglected, chemical reactions play a crucial role in structure formation in PP nanocomposites containing a functionalized polymer. Direct interaction of the silicate surface and the functionalized polymer as well as the formation of hydrogen bridges seem to play a lesser role, but the relative influence of processes may change with the type of surfactant, functionalized polymer, surface coverage and processing conditions.
- Layered silicate polymer nanocomposite
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Organic Chemistry
- Polymers and Plastics
- Materials Chemistry