Population-based case-control study of isolated congenital cataract

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to detect possible etiological factors in the origin of isolated congenital cataracts. METHODS: The data set of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980-2002, contains 111 cases of isolated congenital cataract and 111 matched control pairs without the defect, 37,837 population controls without any defects, and 22,744 malformed controls with other nonocular abnormalities. Exposure data and family history are based on prospective medical records, retrospective maternal information, and information obtained by regional nurses during a home visit with nonrespondent mothers. RESULTS: A positive family history indicated an autosomal-dominant origin in 10% of cases. Rubella infections occurred more frequently in case mothers than in control mothers before vaccination against rubella virus was instituted. A higher prevalence of influenza or common cold during pregnancy was found in the case group (55.9%) than in the population control group (18.5%; adjusted odds ratios [ORs], 5.8; 95% confidence interval (CI), 4.0-8.4) or in the malformed control group (21.7%; adjusted OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 3.2-6.9). The prevalence of acute infectious diseases of the respiratory system during pregnancy was also higher in the case group (26.1%) than in the population control group (9.1%; adjusted OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 2.5-5.8), or the malformed control group (9.3%; adjusted OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.3-5.3). The higher risk for isolated congenital cataract in cases of mothers with influenza or common cold and acute infectious diseases of the respiratory system during pregnancy was not found after administration of antifever therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Some isolated congenital cataracts are preventable by rubella vaccination and probably by influenza vaccination in the epidemic period. In addition, our results suggest that using antifever therapy for fever-related respiratory diseases may restrict the teratogenic risk of hyperthermia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)997-1005
Number of pages9
JournalBirth Defects Research Part A - Clinical and Molecular Teratology
Volume73
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2005

Keywords

  • Autosomal-dominant inheritance
  • Case-control study
  • Congenital cataract
  • Fever

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Embryology
  • Developmental Biology

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