Transfer of polar, high-molecular weight solutes across the placenta is facilitated by a specialized, vesicular transport mechanism termed transcytosis. In contrast to the ex vivo polarised tissue culture systems, the syncytiotrophoblast at the maternal-fetal interface does not allow intercellular transfer, but probably transcellular transfer of cells and substances are allowed. Series of transporters, (i) phagocytosis, (ii) macropinocytosis, (iii) the classical clathrin-mediated endocytosis, (iv) dynamin-dependent endocytosis via (v) glycolipid rafts, (vi) clathrin, caveolae, and dynamin-independent endocytosis that requires lipid rafts, and (vii) dynamin-independent endocytosis that does not involve clathrin-coated pits, caveolae or lipid rafts were shown to provide the fetus with substances required for its development and growth. The Fc- and other receptor mediated transport is of essential importance for the development of fetal immune system. Nanoparticles, however also can be transferred through the human placenta and deposited in different organs of the fetus. The transcytosis of antibodies, antigen-antibody complexes and anti-idiotypic antibodies (Ab2) is probably the most important for the development of the fetal immune system. Induction of TREG cells, priming of fetal B- and T-cells, induction of memory cells, breakage of immunotolerance are the most important consequences suggested. HLA haplotypes were found to be important for the responses elicited by changes of the Id-anti-Id network. Anti-idiotypic antibodies were shown to react with T-cell receptors and induce antigen specific clones of oncolytic properties. Transplacental transfer of anti-Ids were found to reduce the risk of diabetes of fetuses who's mother were suffering from lupus. The long term interaction of B-cell and T-cell receptors and anti-idiotypic antibody networks can have therapeutic effects to malignancies of lymphocyte origin similar to the effect of monoclonal antibodies discussed in other chapters of this volume. The non-cytocydal long term elimination of vertically transmitted hepatitis B carrier state seems to occur by the interplay of the partially resolved mechanisms described in this chapter.
|Title of host publication||Maternal Fetal Transmission of Human Viruses and their Influence on Tumorigenesis|
|Number of pages||25|
|ISBN (Print)||9400742150, 9789400742154|
|Publication status||Published - Oct 1 2012|
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