This chapter reviews the placebo-phenomenon from the point of view of cognitive/emotional operations. Definitions and the most important terms are followed by the traditional medicine-placebo relationships primarily through the "full medicine effect". The placebo-theories are reviewed by applying the bio-psycho-social approach, above all focusing on the role of conditioning, suggestions and expectancies, respectively. In concordance with this special approach, we also deal with the neurobiology of the placebo-effect, i.e. with the known and supposed brain mechanisms, respectively. The application of the placebo-effect in pathological conditions is demonstrated through depression, and then the role of consciousness and motivations in the phenomenon is explored. Because of its clinical significance, the nocebo-effect is also shortly overviewed together with its role in iatrogenic damage and in non-required side effects. The final summary tries to place the placebo-phenomenon in context with the clinical settings.
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