Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide induces pial arteriolar vasodilation through cyclooxygenase-dependent and independent mechanisms in newborn pigs

Laura Lenti, Ferenc Domoki, David Kis, Orsolya Hegyi, Gabor K. Toth, David W. Busija, Ferenc Bari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a cerebrovascular dilator and was found neuroprotective in numerous in vitro and in vivo models of cerebral ischemia. However, the mechanism of its cerebrovascular action is poorly known, especially in newborns. Therefore, we tested pial arteriolar responses to the two naturally occurring forms PACAP27 and 38 as well as to shorter sequences (PACAP6-27, 6-38, 1-15, 6-15, 20-31). We also investigated the involvement of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 (COX-1 and -2) activity in PACAP-induced pial arteriolar responses using the NOS inhibitor N-ω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME 15 mg/kg iv), the non-selective COX inhibitor indomethacin (5 mg/kg iv), and the selective COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors SC-560 (1 mg/kg iv) and NS-398 (1 mg/kg iv), respectively. Anesthetized, ventilated piglets (n = 127) were equipped with closed cranial windows, and pial arteriolar diameters were determined via intravital microscopy. Topical application of both natural PACAPs, but none of the PACAP segments, resulted in prominent, repeatable, dose-dependent vasodilation. Percentage changes ranged 5 ± 1-29 ± 6 (n = 7) and 4 ± 1-36 ± 7 (n = 9) to 10- 8 to 10- 6 M PACAP27 and 38 (mean ± SEM), respectively. Vasodilation to both natural PACAPs was significantly reduced by co-application with PACAP6-27 or 6-38, but not by l-NAME. Indomethacin abolished PACAP38 but not PACAP27-induced vasodilation. Arteriolar responses to PACAP38 were also sensitive to SC-560 but not to NS-398 suggesting the unique involvement of COX-1 activity in this response. In summary, PACAP27 and 38 are potent vasodilators in the neonatal cerebral circulation with at least two distinct mechanisms of action: a COX-dependent and a COX-independent pathway.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)81-88
Number of pages8
JournalBrain research
Volume1165
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 24 2007

Keywords

  • Cyclooxygenase
  • Pial arteriole
  • Piglet
  • Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide
  • Vasodilation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Molecular Biology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Developmental Biology

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