We consider various two-leg ladder models exhibiting gapped phases. All of these phases have short-ranged valence bond ground states, and they all exhibit string order. However, we show that short-ranged valence bond ground states divide into two topologically distinct classes, and as a consequence, there exist two topologically distinct types of string order. Therefore, not all gapped phases belong to the same universality class. We show that phase transitions occur when we interpolate between models belonging to different topological classes, and we study the nature of these transitions.
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics|
|Publication status||Published - Dec 1 2000|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Condensed Matter Physics