A spatial evolutionary public goods game (PGG) model demonstrating that the successful spreading of selfish behavior is efficiently prevented by allowing for voluntary participation is introduced. In the compulsory PGG, i.e., in the absence of loners, cooperators thrive only if clustering advantages are strong enough, which requires sufficiently high multiplication factors r. The introduction of loners leads to a cyclic dominance of the strategies and promotes substantial levels of cooperation where otherwise defectors dominate.
|Journal||Physical review letters|
|Publication status||Published - Sep 9 2002|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)