Phase-field crystal modelling of crystal nucleation, heteroepitaxy and patterning

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Abstract

A simple dynamical density functional theory, the phase-field crystal (PFC) model, was used to describe homogeneous and heterogeneous crystal nucleation in two-dimensional (2D) monodisperse colloidal systems and crystal nucleation in highly compressed Fe liquid. External periodic potentials were used to approximate inert crystalline substrates in addressing heterogeneous nucleation. In agreement with experiments in 2D colloids, the PFC model predicts that in 2D supersaturated liquids, crystalline freezing starts with homogeneous crystal nucleation without the occurrence of the hexatic phase. At extreme supersaturations, crystal nucleation happens after the appearance of an amorphous precursor both in two and three dimensions. Contrary to expectations based on the classical nucleation theory, it is shown that corners are not necessarily favourable places for crystal nucleation. Finally, it is shown that by adding external potential terms to the free energy, the PFC theory can be used to model colloid patterning experiments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)123-149
Number of pages27
JournalPhilosophical Magazine
Volume91
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2011

Keywords

  • colloid
  • density functional theory
  • heteroepitaxy
  • nucleation
  • patterning
  • two-dimensional freezing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics

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