In rheumatology, especially in arthritides, early diagnosis and aggressive therapy may open up new dimensions of expectations, such as improvement of pain, prevention of structural, functional damage and better quality of life. Targeted (biological) therapy has brought new horizons in rheumatology. As it is a rather expensive treatment modality, it has been urgent to develop tools suitable for the prediction of therapeutic responses. Several clinical, immunological and genetic biomarkers have been established for this purpose. Among clinical markers, male sex, younger age, lower or even higher disease activity at baseline, combination treatment and quitting smoking may lead to better treatment outcome. Immunological biomarkers, such as C-reactive protein, seropositivity, peripheral blood or synovial cellular content have been associated with therapeutic responses. Finally, numerous genes or gene signatures may also predict the efficacy or safety of immunosuppressive drugs. Although sometimes there have been only few studies conducted that led to some controversy, some biomarkers have also been validated. This may lead us to optimism in terms of wider acceptance of personalized medicine in rheumatology.
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