Low output syndrome significantly increases morbidity and mortality of cardiac surgery and lengthens the durations of intensive care unit and hospital stays. Its treatment by catecholamines can lead to undesirable systemic and cardiac complications. Levosimendan is a calcium sensitiser and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium channel (IK,ATP) opener agent. Due to these effects, it improves myocardium performance, does not influence adversely the balance between O2 supply and demand, and possesses cardioprotective and organ protective properties as well. Based on the scientific literature and experts' opinions, a European recommendation was published on the perioperative use of levosimendan in cardiac surgery in 2015. Along this line, and also taking into consideration cardiac surgeon, anaesthesiologist and cardiologist representatives of the seven Hungarian heart centres and the children heart centre, the Hungarian recommendation has been formulated that is based on two pillars: literature evidence and Hungarian expert opinions. The reviewed fields are: coronary and valvular surgery, assist device implantation, heart transplantation both in adult and pediatric cardiologic practice.
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