Peptidergic regulation of food intake: Changes related to age and body composition

M. Székely, M. Balaskó, S. Soós, E. Pétervári

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The regulation of food intake exhibits great variations with age. In juvenile/adolescent age the overall energy balance is positive, i.e. food intake exceeds the energy expenditure thereby it contributes to weight gain and development. Equilibrium of these factors is usually established by young adulthood, but neither body weight nor body composition is maintained at this level forever. Later on two major trends can be observed in the long-term regulation of energy balance: obesity of the middle-aged vs. anorexia with cachexia and sarcopenia at late (old) ages. Simultaneously, from adulthood the fat ratio of the body exhibits a continuous rise, which is halted or attenuated only in the old. These processes are basically similar in humans and other mammals, including rodents in which the regulatory mechanisms can be more easily studied. In the background, complex age-related shifts in the catabolic and anabolic activities of hypothalamic neurohumoral systems can be demonstrated to have important role. In rodents, most catabolic peptides, derived either from the periphery (leptin, insulin, cholecystokinin, other gastrointestinal peptides, nutrients), from the brainstem or the hypothalamus (melanocortins, corticotropin releasing factor /CRF/, cocaine-amphetamine regulated transcript /CART/) decrease body weight primarily via suppression of food intake i.e. by causing anorexia, while the anabolic mediators (peripheral ghrelin, central neuropeptide Y /NPY/, agouti-related peptide /AgRP/, orexins, melanin concentrating hormone /MCH/) are orexigenic. Both the expression of and the responsiveness to these peptides may change with age. While the most important anorexigenic melanocortins are least active in middle-aged animals and extremely active in the old ones, the most effective orexigenic mediator, NPY, exhibits a different pattern of age-dependence: it is very effective in juvenile, less in young adult animals, most effective in early middle-aged ones, but its effectiveness gradually declines by old age. Some of the remaining orexigenic and anorexigenic peptides show similar features. Body composition also modulates the expression of these peptides or their effects on the regulation of food intake.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationFood Intake: Regulation, Assessing and Controlling
PublisherNova Science Publishers, Inc.
Pages83-104
Number of pages22
ISBN (Print)9781613241837
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2013

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Appetite Regulation
Body Composition
body composition
food intake
middle-aged adults
Peptides
peptides
Melanocortins
Anorexia
Rodentia
Eating
Body Weight
anorexia
young adults
Sarcopenia
energy balance
Cachexia
Ghrelin
rodents
Neuropeptide Y

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Cite this

Székely, M., Balaskó, M., Soós, S., & Pétervári, E. (2013). Peptidergic regulation of food intake: Changes related to age and body composition. In Food Intake: Regulation, Assessing and Controlling (pp. 83-104). Nova Science Publishers, Inc..

Peptidergic regulation of food intake : Changes related to age and body composition. / Székely, M.; Balaskó, M.; Soós, S.; Pétervári, E.

Food Intake: Regulation, Assessing and Controlling. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2013. p. 83-104.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Székely, M, Balaskó, M, Soós, S & Pétervári, E 2013, Peptidergic regulation of food intake: Changes related to age and body composition. in Food Intake: Regulation, Assessing and Controlling. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., pp. 83-104.
Székely M, Balaskó M, Soós S, Pétervári E. Peptidergic regulation of food intake: Changes related to age and body composition. In Food Intake: Regulation, Assessing and Controlling. Nova Science Publishers, Inc. 2013. p. 83-104
Székely, M. ; Balaskó, M. ; Soós, S. ; Pétervári, E. / Peptidergic regulation of food intake : Changes related to age and body composition. Food Intake: Regulation, Assessing and Controlling. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2013. pp. 83-104
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