In the present study, the ability of a range of endogenous neuropeptides to modulate neuromuscular transmission was examined in the salivary duct neuromuscular preparation of the terrestrial snail, Helix pomatia. Immunohistochemical and physiological techniques were used to localize the neuropeptides (GSPYFVamide, CARP, FMRFamide and APGWamide) and to investigate whether contractions elicited by the stimulation of the salivary nerve or by exogenously applied 5-HT are subject to peptidergic modulation. All of the neuropeptides studied decreased the tonus by a direct action on the muscle fibers in a concentration dependent manner in a range of 10-9 to 10-6 M. Neuropeptides distinctly affected the 5-HT evoked contraction or relaxation and GSPYFVa and APGWa decreased also the amplitude of contractions elicited by the stimulation of the salivary nerve. All four neuropeptides facilitated the relaxation phase providing further evidence for the postsynaptic action of neuropeptides. Low Ca2+/high Mg2+ saline abolished the nerve-elicited contractions, however the denervated muscle retained the ability to contract due to the mobilization of the Ca2+ from intracellular stores. It was concluded, that peptides belonging to different peptide families exerted their effects through pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms. The modulatory effect of neuropeptides can be assigned to the partial co-localization of 5-HT and neuropeptides in the nerves innervating muscles of the salivary duct, as it was demonstrated by double-labeling immunohistochemistry. A double origin of the 5-HTergic innervation was demonstrated, including efferents originating from both the cerebral and visceral ganglia.
- Salivary duct
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience