AZ IDEGRENDSZERI EXCITOTOXINOK PATOLOGIAI ES KLINIKAI JELENTOSEGE

Translated title of the contribution: Pathological and clinical importance of excitotoxins in the neurological system I. Glutamate receptors

K. Sas, K. Csete, P. Varadi, L. Vécsei, G. Pokorny

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Glutamate is a predominant excitatory transmitter of the central nervous system. Glutamatergic neurotransmission plays an important role in many physiological processes such as learning, development of the nervous system, moving and sensation. Under particular circumstances, its extreme release may cause irreversible damage to the neurons through their overexcitation. It is termed excitotoxicity. Glutamate receptors have two subclasses: ionotropic (iGluR) and metabotropic receptors (mGluR). The ionotropic receptors are devided into the NMDA, AMPA and Kainate subgroups. As a result of glutamate release from the presynaptic cell, the postsynaptic neuron becomes depolarized; Na+ and Ca+ influx begins with K+ efflux from the cell through the ionotropic glutamate receptors; in addition, Cl- influx through the Cl-channels, and additional Na+ influx happens through the Na-channels. These water and ion to two main events in the postsynaptic cell acute neuronal swelling and eventually rupture of the cell and - as a result of the intracellular Ca++ accumulation (which triggers a lot of intracellular processes)- delayed neuronal desintegration. Each mGluR has one subunit. Seven subgroups of mGluR have been discovered so far, termed as mGluR1-7. The mGluR system modulates glutamate transmission with highly sophisticated mechanisms on the same cell, while glutamate mediates even fast synaptic responses through the iGluRs. The precise knowledge of the mechanism of effect of the distinct receptor subgroups may, in the future, lead to the effective treatment of certain neurological diseases. Research is on towards drugs which can exert their beneficial effects without serious side effects. The influence on mGluRs is now in experimental phase.

Original languageHungarian
Pages (from-to)406-421
Number of pages16
JournalLege Artis Medicinae
Volume8
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1998

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Neurotoxins
Glutamate Receptors
Glutamic Acid
Physiological Phenomena
Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors
Neurons
alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid
Kainic Acid
N-Methylaspartate
Synaptic Transmission
Nervous System
Rupture
Central Nervous System
Learning
Ions
Water
Research
Pharmaceutical Preparations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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AZ IDEGRENDSZERI EXCITOTOXINOK PATOLOGIAI ES KLINIKAI JELENTOSEGE. / Sas, K.; Csete, K.; Varadi, P.; Vécsei, L.; Pokorny, G.

In: Lege Artis Medicinae, Vol. 8, No. 6, 1998, p. 406-421.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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