Oxidative stress and chronic low-grade inflammation are major characteristics of obesity-related disorders. The dominance of pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory mechanisms triggers insulin resistance and enhances the progression of atherosclerosis. Discovered first as an esterase that hydrolyze organophosphates, human paraoxonase-1 is bound to high-density lipoprotein and inhibits the oxidation of lipoproteins and reduces the degree of inflammation, hence it is considered to act against atherosclerosis. In contrast, the majority of the adipokines secreted from the enlarged white adipose tissue promote the atherosclerotic process; and altered adipokine secretion is now regarded as one of the major contributors of increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in obesity. In this review, we detail the correlations between paraoxonase-1 and some selected adipokines, namely leptin, adiponectin and chemerin. Adipokine imbalance leads to decreased paraoxonase-1 activity that results in enhanced atherosclerosis; therefore, altered adipokine secretion may be predictive of cardiovascular complications in obesity. As an active organ secreting biological active substances, white adipose tissue may also act as a "fine-tuner" of immune and endocrine actions attenuating or enhancing reactions triggered by pathogens, inflammation and metabolic stimuli; and obesity, as a chronic noxious state may perturb the proper functioning of this fine-tuning process. Further investigations are of major importance to elucidate the associations between adipokines and paraoxonase-1 and to establish accurate interventions against obesity-related disorders.
- White adipose tissue
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