Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) has neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects against various cytotoxic agents in vitro, and ischemia in vivo. Anoxia tolerance is most highly developed in some species of turtles. Recently, we have demonstrated high levels of PACAP38 in the turtle brain, exceeding those in corresponding rat and human brain areas by 10- to 100-fold. The aim of the present study was to investigate with electrophysiological methods the protective effects of PACAP in anoxia-induced neuronal damage of turtle retinal horizontal cells. Adult turtles (Pseudemys scripta elegans) were used for the experiments. After decapitation, half of the isolated eyecup slices were placed into a non-oxygenated Ringer solution, the other half into 0.165 μM PACAP solution. Intracellular recordings were obtained from horizontal cells 18, 22, 42 and 46 h after removal of the eyes. The amplitudes of light responses with the exception of the 0-h measurement, were larger at all time-points in PACAP-incubated slices than in control retinal slices. After both 18 and 22 h, the response amplitudes of PACAP-treated cells exceeded those taken from control horizontal cells by 1.2-fold. At later times, this difference became larger than 2-fold. In summary, the present results provide evidence that PACAP has neuroprotective effects on the anoxic retinal cells in the turtle.
- Horizontal cells
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience