### Abstract

We derive a local basis equation which may be used to determine the orbitals of a group of electrons in a system when the orbitals of that group are represented by a group basis set, i.e., not the basis set one would normally use but a subset suited to a specific electronic group. The group orbitals determined by the local basis equation minimize the energy of a system when a group basis set is used and the orbitals of other groups are frozen. In contrast, under the constraint of a group basis set, the group orbitals satisfying the Huzinaga equation do not minimize the energy. In a test of the local basis equation on HCl, the group basis set included only 12 of the 21 functions in a basis set one might ordinarily use, but the calculated active orbital energies were within 0.001 hartree of the values obtained by solving the Hartree-Fock-Roothaan (HFR) equation using all 21 basis functions. The total energy found was just 0.003 hartree higher than the HFR value. The errors with the group basis set approximation to the Huzinaga equation were larger by over two orders of magnitude. Similar results were obtained for PCl3 with the group basis approximation. Retaining more basis functions allows an even higher accuracy as shown by the perfect reproduction of the HFR energy of HCl with 16 out of 21 basis functions in the valence basis set. When the core basis set was also truncated then no additional error was introduced in the calculations performed for HCl with various basis sets. The same calculations with fixed core orbitals taken from isolated heavy atoms added a small error of about 10-4 hartree. This offers a practical way to calculate wave functions with predetermined fixed core and reduced base valence orbitals at reduced computational costs. The local basis equation can also be used to combine the above approximations with the assignment of local basis sets to groups of localized valence molecular orbitals and to derive a priori localized orbitals. An appropriately chosen localization and basis set assignment allowed a reproduction of the energy of n -hexane with an error of 10-5 hartree, while the energy difference between its two conformers was reproduced with a similar accuracy for several combinations of localizations and basis set assignments. These calculations include localized orbitals extending to 4-5 heavy atoms and thus they require to solve reduced dimension secular equations. The dimensions are not expected to increase with increasing system size and thus the local basis equation may find use in linear scaling electronic structure calculations.

Original language | English |
---|---|

Article number | 134108 |

Journal | The Journal of Chemical Physics |

Volume | 130 |

Issue number | 13 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 2009 |

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### ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Physics and Astronomy(all)
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry

### Cite this

*The Journal of Chemical Physics*,

*130*(13), [134108]. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3096690

**Optimization of selected molecular orbitals in group basis sets.** / Ferenczy, G.; Adams, William H.

Research output: Contribution to journal › Article

*The Journal of Chemical Physics*, vol. 130, no. 13, 134108. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3096690

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Optimization of selected molecular orbitals in group basis sets

AU - Ferenczy, G.

AU - Adams, William H.

PY - 2009

Y1 - 2009

N2 - We derive a local basis equation which may be used to determine the orbitals of a group of electrons in a system when the orbitals of that group are represented by a group basis set, i.e., not the basis set one would normally use but a subset suited to a specific electronic group. The group orbitals determined by the local basis equation minimize the energy of a system when a group basis set is used and the orbitals of other groups are frozen. In contrast, under the constraint of a group basis set, the group orbitals satisfying the Huzinaga equation do not minimize the energy. In a test of the local basis equation on HCl, the group basis set included only 12 of the 21 functions in a basis set one might ordinarily use, but the calculated active orbital energies were within 0.001 hartree of the values obtained by solving the Hartree-Fock-Roothaan (HFR) equation using all 21 basis functions. The total energy found was just 0.003 hartree higher than the HFR value. The errors with the group basis set approximation to the Huzinaga equation were larger by over two orders of magnitude. Similar results were obtained for PCl3 with the group basis approximation. Retaining more basis functions allows an even higher accuracy as shown by the perfect reproduction of the HFR energy of HCl with 16 out of 21 basis functions in the valence basis set. When the core basis set was also truncated then no additional error was introduced in the calculations performed for HCl with various basis sets. The same calculations with fixed core orbitals taken from isolated heavy atoms added a small error of about 10-4 hartree. This offers a practical way to calculate wave functions with predetermined fixed core and reduced base valence orbitals at reduced computational costs. The local basis equation can also be used to combine the above approximations with the assignment of local basis sets to groups of localized valence molecular orbitals and to derive a priori localized orbitals. An appropriately chosen localization and basis set assignment allowed a reproduction of the energy of n -hexane with an error of 10-5 hartree, while the energy difference between its two conformers was reproduced with a similar accuracy for several combinations of localizations and basis set assignments. These calculations include localized orbitals extending to 4-5 heavy atoms and thus they require to solve reduced dimension secular equations. The dimensions are not expected to increase with increasing system size and thus the local basis equation may find use in linear scaling electronic structure calculations.

AB - We derive a local basis equation which may be used to determine the orbitals of a group of electrons in a system when the orbitals of that group are represented by a group basis set, i.e., not the basis set one would normally use but a subset suited to a specific electronic group. The group orbitals determined by the local basis equation minimize the energy of a system when a group basis set is used and the orbitals of other groups are frozen. In contrast, under the constraint of a group basis set, the group orbitals satisfying the Huzinaga equation do not minimize the energy. In a test of the local basis equation on HCl, the group basis set included only 12 of the 21 functions in a basis set one might ordinarily use, but the calculated active orbital energies were within 0.001 hartree of the values obtained by solving the Hartree-Fock-Roothaan (HFR) equation using all 21 basis functions. The total energy found was just 0.003 hartree higher than the HFR value. The errors with the group basis set approximation to the Huzinaga equation were larger by over two orders of magnitude. Similar results were obtained for PCl3 with the group basis approximation. Retaining more basis functions allows an even higher accuracy as shown by the perfect reproduction of the HFR energy of HCl with 16 out of 21 basis functions in the valence basis set. When the core basis set was also truncated then no additional error was introduced in the calculations performed for HCl with various basis sets. The same calculations with fixed core orbitals taken from isolated heavy atoms added a small error of about 10-4 hartree. This offers a practical way to calculate wave functions with predetermined fixed core and reduced base valence orbitals at reduced computational costs. The local basis equation can also be used to combine the above approximations with the assignment of local basis sets to groups of localized valence molecular orbitals and to derive a priori localized orbitals. An appropriately chosen localization and basis set assignment allowed a reproduction of the energy of n -hexane with an error of 10-5 hartree, while the energy difference between its two conformers was reproduced with a similar accuracy for several combinations of localizations and basis set assignments. These calculations include localized orbitals extending to 4-5 heavy atoms and thus they require to solve reduced dimension secular equations. The dimensions are not expected to increase with increasing system size and thus the local basis equation may find use in linear scaling electronic structure calculations.

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U2 - 10.1063/1.3096690

DO - 10.1063/1.3096690

M3 - Article

VL - 130

JO - Journal of Chemical Physics

JF - Journal of Chemical Physics

SN - 0021-9606

IS - 13

M1 - 134108

ER -