Reaching a target quantum state from an initial state within a finite temporal window is a challenging problem due to nonadiabaticity. We study the optimal protocol for switching on interactions to reach the ground state of a weakly interacting Luttinger liquid within a finite time τ, starting from the noninteracting ground state. The protocol is optimized by minimizing the excess energy at the end of the quench, or by maximizing the overlap with the interacting ground state. We find that the optimal protocol is symmetric with respect to τ/2, and can be expressed as a functional of the occupation numbers of the bosonic modes in the final state. For short quench durations, the optimal protocol exhibits fast oscillation and excites high-energy modes. In the limit of large τ, minimizing energy requires a smooth protocol while maximizing overlap requires a linear quench protocol. In this limit, the minimal energy and maximal overlap are both universal functions of the system size and the duration of the protocol.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Condensed Matter Physics