Optimal probabilistic fingerprint codes

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116 Citations (Scopus)


We construct binary codes for fingerprinting digital documents. Our codes for n users that areε-secure against c pirates have length O(c 2log(n/ε)). This improves the codesproposed by Boneh and Shaw [1998] whose length is approximately the square of this length. Theimprovement carries over to works using the Boneh - Shaw code as a primitive, for example, to the dynamic traitor tracing scheme of Tassa [2005]. By proving matching lower bounds we establish that the length of our codes is best within a constant factor for reasonable error probabilities. This lowerbound generalizes the bound found independently by Peikert et al. [2003] that applies to a limited classof codes. Our results also imply that randomized fingerprint codes over a binary alphabet are aspowerful as over an arbitrary alphabet and the equal strength of two distinct models for fingerprinting.

Original languageEnglish
Article number10
JournalJournal of the ACM
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2008



  • Collusion attack
  • Fingerprint codes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Information Systems
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Artificial Intelligence

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