The formation of amorphous NiP coating by electroless deposition on to copper and iron substrates has been followed by soft X-ray emission spectroscopy (SXES), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Three different stages of formation can be distinguished. The first period is nucleation in an essentially two-dimensional layer where the formation of nuclei depends on the number and properties of the active sites on the underlying substrate layer. There is a three-dimensional spherical growth in the second stage. The concentration of phosphorus increased in the interspherical area. A relatively slow two-dimensional growth is characteristic of the third stage giving rise to a bright outer surface of the coating.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Ceramics and Composites
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Materials Chemistry