Within a four years' program (2001-2004) supported by the EU, winter wheat fields were surveyed for the occurrence of Fusarium ear blight (FEB) pathogens in four European countries representing different climatic conditions. Anti-FEB treatments were avoided in the sampling areas. The aims of this project were to assess the prevalence of FEB pathogens, the occurrence of mycotoxin contamination, the role of weather conditions, and to develop models to predict the risks of the disease and subsequent mycotoxin contamination. The pathogens, associated with FEB were identified by diagnostic PCR, a method suitable to detect latent infections. This paper describes the data obtained for Hungary. All six FEB-causing fungus species covered by the PCR diagnosis were identified in the Hungarian samples collected from 15 sites. F. poae and F. graminearum were the prevailing species. Levels of infection were, in general, mild. Altogether, 50 grain samples were examined for the presence of mycotoxin (DAS, DON, NIV, ZEA) contamination and 14 positive cases were recorded: DON was most frequently detected (in 12 samples), followed by NIV (five samples). Except in one case, all the grain sampled contaminated by DON were found to contain the DNA of F. graminearum (and/or more rarely F. culmorum), whereas the NIV-positive samples always contained some level of F. poae DNA. Levels of FEB infection varied from year to year. In 2003, a year of serious drought, almost no signs of FEB were observed in the country and none of the grain samples contained any of the four mycotoxins, whereas in 2004, a more rainy year, FEB pathogens occurred more frequently and 60% of the grain samples contained one or other of the above-mentioned mycotoxins. However, except for one case, levels of mycotoxin contamination were always low. Fusarium ear blight, developed according to the classical model (i.e., infection is initiated by Gibberella zeae ascospores during GS 68-70) is rare in Hungary, presumably because of the dry, hot weather conditions prevailing around flowering. On the other hand, secondary infections may be severe when the ripening ears are exposed to heavy and harvest is delayed.
|Translated title of the contribution||Occurrence of Fusarium ear blight pathogens and mycotoxin accumulation in winter wheat in Hungary between 2001 and 2004|
|Number of pages||19|
|Publication status||Published - Dec 1 2005|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agronomy and Crop Science