Occurrence of black Aspergilli in indoor environments of six countries

János Varga, Sándor Kocsubé, Gyöngyi Szigeti, Nikolett Baranyi, Csaba Vágvölgyi, Daniela Jakšić Despot, Donát Magyar, Martin Meijer, Robert A. Samson, Maja Šegvić Klarić

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)


Black Aspergilli (Aspergillus section Nigri) are widely distributed in various habitats. They act as food spoilage organisms, human pathogens, and mycotoxin producers and are frequently encountered in indoor environments. Black Aspergilli, specifically A. niger, A. welwitschiae, and A. carbonarius, produce different ochratoxins and fumonisins. Ochratoxins are known to induce renal disorders following inhalation, which necessitates the determination of potential mycotoxin-producing species in our environment. This paper aimed to compare the diversity and species distribution of black Aspergilli in the indoor environments of six different countries using morphological and molecular methods. A total of 178 black Aspergillus isolates were identified from six countries. In contrast with results from previous studies, A. niger was not the only black Aspergillus detected in indoor air. Species distribution differed among countries, although the distribution in European countries (Croatia, Hungary, the Netherlands, and Turkey) with a temperate climate was considerably similar. The highest species diversity was observed in indoor samples from Thailand, while the lowest was found in Algeria. Potentially ochratoxin- and fumonisin-producing fungi were detected in the indoor air of all six countries. Further studies need to clarify the effect of these fungi and their mycotoxins on human and animal health.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)219-223
Number of pages5
JournalArhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 2014



  • Aspergillus section Nigri
  • Calmodulin gene
  • Indoor fungi
  • Sequence-based identification
  • Species distribution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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