Occurrence of antimony and phthalate esters in polyethylene terephthalate bottled drinking water

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Interest in studying leaching of toxic (in)organic contaminants such as antimony (Sb) and phthalate esters into drinking water increased because of the ever growing market of water bottled in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) packaging material. Possible contamination sources of drinking water contained in PET bottles are hereby reviewed. Instrumental analytical methods suitable for Sb and phthalate ester determination in drinking water and PET material are also presented. Outcomes on leaching of Sb and phthalate esters into drinking water are grouped according to storage time, exposure to heat/light, sample pH, and PET bottle volume. Methods for estimation of toxicological activity of water in PET bottles are also compiled. Normally, Sb and phthalate ester concentrations in drinking water do not exceed the health limit values in force. Although excellent detection limits can be achieved for phthalate ester determination, due to their ubiquity, results are primarily affected by laboratory cross-contamination. Recent investigations suggest that drinking water stored in PET bottles does not possess either genotoxic or estrogenic activity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)163-189
Number of pages27
JournalApplied Spectroscopy Reviews
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 15 2016



  • exposure
  • hormones
  • leaching
  • mineral water
  • PET
  • toxicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Spectroscopy
  • Instrumentation

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