The electrostatic potential and density fluctuations have been measured at the edge of the TEXTOR tokamak by two toroidally distant Langmuir probe arrays. The geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) zonal flows (ZFs) are observed in potential fluctuations with a toroidal and poloidal symmetric structure. The GAM frequency, fGAM, changes monotonically with the local temperature and is close to the frequency-dispersion predicted by theories. Bispectral analysis shows clear nonlinear coupling between the GAM and broadband ambient turbulence. The GAM packet has a narrow radial extent with kr ≃ 0.5-0.7 cm-1 and exhibits explicitly a radially outward propagation. Furthermore, the radial correlation structure of GAMs and their radial propagation have been investigated in a wide range of parameters by varying plasma density and edge safety factor (5.0 ≤ q(a) ≤ 5.9). It is found that the magnitude of the GAM correlations reduces remarkably with the increase in the plasma density approaching the density limit, while the radial wavelength of GAMs only decreases slightly in higher density and larger q(a) discharges. With increasing plasma density, the radial propagating phase speed of GAMs is strongly reduced along with the drop in the local temperature. The results provide new evidence on the propagation properties of GAM ZFs.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Nuclear Energy and Engineering
- Condensed Matter Physics