Nutrient uptake of winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) on calcareous chernozem soil

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The effect of different levels of N, P and K supplies (poor, medium, satisfactory, excessive) and their combinations was investigated on the macro- and microelement uptake of winter barley (variety Mv 35) grown on calcareous loamy chernozem soil, as a function of vegetation period and NPK supplies. The specific element contents were also determined. The ploughed layer contained 5% CaCO3, 3% humus and 20-25% clay, and had a pH of 7.3 pH(KCl). The groundwater depth was 15 m. Soil analysis showed the original soil to be poorly supplied with P and Zn, moderately well supplied with N and K, and well supplied with Fe, Mn and Cu. The mineral fertilisation experiment involved 4N×4P×4K = 64 treatments, or nutritional situations, in two replications, giving a total of 128 plots. The N levels were 0, 100, 200 and 300 kg/ha/year N. Replenishment fertilisation with P and K was carried out when the experiment was set up in autumn 1973 with rates of 0, 500, 1000 and 1500 kg/ha/10 years P2O5 and K2O. The fertilisers were applied in the form of calcium ammonium nitrate, superphosphate and 50% potassium chloride. In the 6th year of the experiment, in 1979, the second half of the vegetation period of winter barley, from spring onwards, was very dry. The plot size was 6×6=36 m2 and the forecrop was potato. The main conclusions were as follows: 1. N×P interactions were dominant in element uptake (as in the formation of dry matter and in changes in the plant composition). The element uptake recorded on the unfertilised control plot generally increased by an order of magnitude as the result of a joint excess of N and P in shoots at the end of tillering or at heading. The fertiliser effects later declined and the difference was 1.5-3.5 times at harvest, depending on the elements. Zn was the only exception. Maximum Zn uptake was observed at the N1P1 level, while in the N3P3 treatment there was a reduction of some 30% due to P-Zn ion antagonism. 2. The incorporation of the elements generally preceded dry matter accumulation, especially in the case of plentiful NP supplies. Maximum absorption in the shoots was recorded at heading for N, P and K and at flowering for Ca, Mg and Na. Between this period and maturity the winter barley lost 1/3 of the N, 1/2 of the Ca, Mg and Na and approx. 60% of the K in plots with an excess of N and P, partly due to the withering of the foliage. On P-deficient soil this phenomenon was only observed to a moderate extent for K. In the case of microelements the accumulation was pronounced right up to maturity on the P control soil (and for Fe in the NP treatments, too), while the maximum quantity of Mn, Zn and Cu absorbed was much the same at flowering and harvest in the NP treatments. 3. With an improvement in the NPK supplies (with an excess of NP) the uptake of other elements accelerated in the early developmental stages, which could lead to a change in the dynamics of uptake and in the specific element contents. On the NP plots with maximum yield the specific N, P, K and Na values were 20%, 30%, 30% and 100% greater than the control, while the Mg and Zn values were 30% and 45% lower. 4. The specific element content of winter barley, i.e. that of 1 t grain + the relevant by-products, was as follows, depending on the nutrient supplies in the soil: N 24-30 kg, K2O 14-19 kg, CaO 6-7kg, P2O5 8-11 kg, MgO 3-4 kg, Na2O 2-4 kg, Fe 170-200 g, Mn 50-60 g, Zn 24-42 g, Cu 5-6 g. The values of 27 kg N, 10 kg P2O5 and 3 kg MgO recommended by the Hungarian extension service are in good agreement with these results, while the 26 kg K2O and the 10 kg CaO are 35-40% too high. 5. If the crop is harvested with a combine which only removes the grain yield from the field, the K and Ca requirements are reduced to a minimum. A total of only 10 kg Ca and 30 kg K2O would be lost per hectare for an average yield of 5 t/ha, which is not substantial even on acidic or K-deficient soil. On heavier soils rich in lime and K this loss is negligible.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)548-559
Number of pages12
JournalNovenytermeles
Volume49
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2000

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winter barley
calcareous soils
nutrient uptake
Hordeum vulgare
uptake mechanisms
soil
fertilizers
calcium ammonium nitrate
flowering
chemical constituents of plants
vegetation
shoots
superphosphate
potassium chloride
plant micronutrients
loam soils
soil analysis
tillering
heading
humus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science

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Nutrient uptake of winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) on calcareous chernozem soil. / Kádár, I.

In: Novenytermeles, Vol. 49, No. 5, 10.2000, p. 548-559.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{79d3469b164b480f9d0390cedfe5f787,
title = "Nutrient uptake of winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) on calcareous chernozem soil",
abstract = "The effect of different levels of N, P and K supplies (poor, medium, satisfactory, excessive) and their combinations was investigated on the macro- and microelement uptake of winter barley (variety Mv 35) grown on calcareous loamy chernozem soil, as a function of vegetation period and NPK supplies. The specific element contents were also determined. The ploughed layer contained 5{\%} CaCO3, 3{\%} humus and 20-25{\%} clay, and had a pH of 7.3 pH(KCl). The groundwater depth was 15 m. Soil analysis showed the original soil to be poorly supplied with P and Zn, moderately well supplied with N and K, and well supplied with Fe, Mn and Cu. The mineral fertilisation experiment involved 4N×4P×4K = 64 treatments, or nutritional situations, in two replications, giving a total of 128 plots. The N levels were 0, 100, 200 and 300 kg/ha/year N. Replenishment fertilisation with P and K was carried out when the experiment was set up in autumn 1973 with rates of 0, 500, 1000 and 1500 kg/ha/10 years P2O5 and K2O. The fertilisers were applied in the form of calcium ammonium nitrate, superphosphate and 50{\%} potassium chloride. In the 6th year of the experiment, in 1979, the second half of the vegetation period of winter barley, from spring onwards, was very dry. The plot size was 6×6=36 m2 and the forecrop was potato. The main conclusions were as follows: 1. N×P interactions were dominant in element uptake (as in the formation of dry matter and in changes in the plant composition). The element uptake recorded on the unfertilised control plot generally increased by an order of magnitude as the result of a joint excess of N and P in shoots at the end of tillering or at heading. The fertiliser effects later declined and the difference was 1.5-3.5 times at harvest, depending on the elements. Zn was the only exception. Maximum Zn uptake was observed at the N1P1 level, while in the N3P3 treatment there was a reduction of some 30{\%} due to P-Zn ion antagonism. 2. The incorporation of the elements generally preceded dry matter accumulation, especially in the case of plentiful NP supplies. Maximum absorption in the shoots was recorded at heading for N, P and K and at flowering for Ca, Mg and Na. Between this period and maturity the winter barley lost 1/3 of the N, 1/2 of the Ca, Mg and Na and approx. 60{\%} of the K in plots with an excess of N and P, partly due to the withering of the foliage. On P-deficient soil this phenomenon was only observed to a moderate extent for K. In the case of microelements the accumulation was pronounced right up to maturity on the P control soil (and for Fe in the NP treatments, too), while the maximum quantity of Mn, Zn and Cu absorbed was much the same at flowering and harvest in the NP treatments. 3. With an improvement in the NPK supplies (with an excess of NP) the uptake of other elements accelerated in the early developmental stages, which could lead to a change in the dynamics of uptake and in the specific element contents. On the NP plots with maximum yield the specific N, P, K and Na values were 20{\%}, 30{\%}, 30{\%} and 100{\%} greater than the control, while the Mg and Zn values were 30{\%} and 45{\%} lower. 4. The specific element content of winter barley, i.e. that of 1 t grain + the relevant by-products, was as follows, depending on the nutrient supplies in the soil: N 24-30 kg, K2O 14-19 kg, CaO 6-7kg, P2O5 8-11 kg, MgO 3-4 kg, Na2O 2-4 kg, Fe 170-200 g, Mn 50-60 g, Zn 24-42 g, Cu 5-6 g. The values of 27 kg N, 10 kg P2O5 and 3 kg MgO recommended by the Hungarian extension service are in good agreement with these results, while the 26 kg K2O and the 10 kg CaO are 35-40{\%} too high. 5. If the crop is harvested with a combine which only removes the grain yield from the field, the K and Ca requirements are reduced to a minimum. A total of only 10 kg Ca and 30 kg K2O would be lost per hectare for an average yield of 5 t/ha, which is not substantial even on acidic or K-deficient soil. On heavier soils rich in lime and K this loss is negligible.",
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N2 - The effect of different levels of N, P and K supplies (poor, medium, satisfactory, excessive) and their combinations was investigated on the macro- and microelement uptake of winter barley (variety Mv 35) grown on calcareous loamy chernozem soil, as a function of vegetation period and NPK supplies. The specific element contents were also determined. The ploughed layer contained 5% CaCO3, 3% humus and 20-25% clay, and had a pH of 7.3 pH(KCl). The groundwater depth was 15 m. Soil analysis showed the original soil to be poorly supplied with P and Zn, moderately well supplied with N and K, and well supplied with Fe, Mn and Cu. The mineral fertilisation experiment involved 4N×4P×4K = 64 treatments, or nutritional situations, in two replications, giving a total of 128 plots. The N levels were 0, 100, 200 and 300 kg/ha/year N. Replenishment fertilisation with P and K was carried out when the experiment was set up in autumn 1973 with rates of 0, 500, 1000 and 1500 kg/ha/10 years P2O5 and K2O. The fertilisers were applied in the form of calcium ammonium nitrate, superphosphate and 50% potassium chloride. In the 6th year of the experiment, in 1979, the second half of the vegetation period of winter barley, from spring onwards, was very dry. The plot size was 6×6=36 m2 and the forecrop was potato. The main conclusions were as follows: 1. N×P interactions were dominant in element uptake (as in the formation of dry matter and in changes in the plant composition). The element uptake recorded on the unfertilised control plot generally increased by an order of magnitude as the result of a joint excess of N and P in shoots at the end of tillering or at heading. The fertiliser effects later declined and the difference was 1.5-3.5 times at harvest, depending on the elements. Zn was the only exception. Maximum Zn uptake was observed at the N1P1 level, while in the N3P3 treatment there was a reduction of some 30% due to P-Zn ion antagonism. 2. The incorporation of the elements generally preceded dry matter accumulation, especially in the case of plentiful NP supplies. Maximum absorption in the shoots was recorded at heading for N, P and K and at flowering for Ca, Mg and Na. Between this period and maturity the winter barley lost 1/3 of the N, 1/2 of the Ca, Mg and Na and approx. 60% of the K in plots with an excess of N and P, partly due to the withering of the foliage. On P-deficient soil this phenomenon was only observed to a moderate extent for K. In the case of microelements the accumulation was pronounced right up to maturity on the P control soil (and for Fe in the NP treatments, too), while the maximum quantity of Mn, Zn and Cu absorbed was much the same at flowering and harvest in the NP treatments. 3. With an improvement in the NPK supplies (with an excess of NP) the uptake of other elements accelerated in the early developmental stages, which could lead to a change in the dynamics of uptake and in the specific element contents. On the NP plots with maximum yield the specific N, P, K and Na values were 20%, 30%, 30% and 100% greater than the control, while the Mg and Zn values were 30% and 45% lower. 4. The specific element content of winter barley, i.e. that of 1 t grain + the relevant by-products, was as follows, depending on the nutrient supplies in the soil: N 24-30 kg, K2O 14-19 kg, CaO 6-7kg, P2O5 8-11 kg, MgO 3-4 kg, Na2O 2-4 kg, Fe 170-200 g, Mn 50-60 g, Zn 24-42 g, Cu 5-6 g. The values of 27 kg N, 10 kg P2O5 and 3 kg MgO recommended by the Hungarian extension service are in good agreement with these results, while the 26 kg K2O and the 10 kg CaO are 35-40% too high. 5. If the crop is harvested with a combine which only removes the grain yield from the field, the K and Ca requirements are reduced to a minimum. A total of only 10 kg Ca and 30 kg K2O would be lost per hectare for an average yield of 5 t/ha, which is not substantial even on acidic or K-deficient soil. On heavier soils rich in lime and K this loss is negligible.

AB - The effect of different levels of N, P and K supplies (poor, medium, satisfactory, excessive) and their combinations was investigated on the macro- and microelement uptake of winter barley (variety Mv 35) grown on calcareous loamy chernozem soil, as a function of vegetation period and NPK supplies. The specific element contents were also determined. The ploughed layer contained 5% CaCO3, 3% humus and 20-25% clay, and had a pH of 7.3 pH(KCl). The groundwater depth was 15 m. Soil analysis showed the original soil to be poorly supplied with P and Zn, moderately well supplied with N and K, and well supplied with Fe, Mn and Cu. The mineral fertilisation experiment involved 4N×4P×4K = 64 treatments, or nutritional situations, in two replications, giving a total of 128 plots. The N levels were 0, 100, 200 and 300 kg/ha/year N. Replenishment fertilisation with P and K was carried out when the experiment was set up in autumn 1973 with rates of 0, 500, 1000 and 1500 kg/ha/10 years P2O5 and K2O. The fertilisers were applied in the form of calcium ammonium nitrate, superphosphate and 50% potassium chloride. In the 6th year of the experiment, in 1979, the second half of the vegetation period of winter barley, from spring onwards, was very dry. The plot size was 6×6=36 m2 and the forecrop was potato. The main conclusions were as follows: 1. N×P interactions were dominant in element uptake (as in the formation of dry matter and in changes in the plant composition). The element uptake recorded on the unfertilised control plot generally increased by an order of magnitude as the result of a joint excess of N and P in shoots at the end of tillering or at heading. The fertiliser effects later declined and the difference was 1.5-3.5 times at harvest, depending on the elements. Zn was the only exception. Maximum Zn uptake was observed at the N1P1 level, while in the N3P3 treatment there was a reduction of some 30% due to P-Zn ion antagonism. 2. The incorporation of the elements generally preceded dry matter accumulation, especially in the case of plentiful NP supplies. Maximum absorption in the shoots was recorded at heading for N, P and K and at flowering for Ca, Mg and Na. Between this period and maturity the winter barley lost 1/3 of the N, 1/2 of the Ca, Mg and Na and approx. 60% of the K in plots with an excess of N and P, partly due to the withering of the foliage. On P-deficient soil this phenomenon was only observed to a moderate extent for K. In the case of microelements the accumulation was pronounced right up to maturity on the P control soil (and for Fe in the NP treatments, too), while the maximum quantity of Mn, Zn and Cu absorbed was much the same at flowering and harvest in the NP treatments. 3. With an improvement in the NPK supplies (with an excess of NP) the uptake of other elements accelerated in the early developmental stages, which could lead to a change in the dynamics of uptake and in the specific element contents. On the NP plots with maximum yield the specific N, P, K and Na values were 20%, 30%, 30% and 100% greater than the control, while the Mg and Zn values were 30% and 45% lower. 4. The specific element content of winter barley, i.e. that of 1 t grain + the relevant by-products, was as follows, depending on the nutrient supplies in the soil: N 24-30 kg, K2O 14-19 kg, CaO 6-7kg, P2O5 8-11 kg, MgO 3-4 kg, Na2O 2-4 kg, Fe 170-200 g, Mn 50-60 g, Zn 24-42 g, Cu 5-6 g. The values of 27 kg N, 10 kg P2O5 and 3 kg MgO recommended by the Hungarian extension service are in good agreement with these results, while the 26 kg K2O and the 10 kg CaO are 35-40% too high. 5. If the crop is harvested with a combine which only removes the grain yield from the field, the K and Ca requirements are reduced to a minimum. A total of only 10 kg Ca and 30 kg K2O would be lost per hectare for an average yield of 5 t/ha, which is not substantial even on acidic or K-deficient soil. On heavier soils rich in lime and K this loss is negligible.

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