Atrial fibrillation affects approximately three percent of the adults. Ablation strategies targeting the isolation of the pulmonary veins are the up-to-date cornerstones for atrial fibrillation ablations. However, a one-year success rate of repeated interventions is not more than 70%. Long-term efficacy of catheter ablation is presumably limited by electrical and structural remodeling of the atria, which results in a progressive increase in the duration of atrial fibrillation to become sustained. The potential pathophysiological importance of the epicardial adipose tissue, atrial fibrosis, autonomic nervous system and arrhythmogenic foci are documented by several studies. Increased volume, inflammation induced transformation to fibrosis and myocardial infiltration of atrial subepicardial fat in obese patients result in higher risk of atrial fibrillation development. Changes in atrial autonomic innervation under some conditions including regular physical exercise strongly promote arrhythmogenesis via the mechanism of enhanced triggered activity or abbreviated atrial refractoriness. Individualized management of possible trigger and substrate mechanisms are proposed to provide a novel basis for the effective treatment of atrial fibrillation. Pro-fibrotic signalling pathways can be inhibited by the suppression of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Neuromodulation strategies include renal sympathetic denervation and ganglionic plexi ablation. Anticoagulation therapy has also been shown to reduce the burden of abnormal atrial remodeling. Possible novel catheter ablation techniques are used for right or left atrial linear lesions, scar homogenization and catheter ablation of complex fractionated atrial electrograms, rotors or ectopic foci. Beside these new management strategies, clinical consideration of factors of particular risks as obesity, hyperlipidaemia, hypertension, diabetes and obstructive sleep apnoe are also essential.
|Translated title of the contribution||Novel mechanisms in the initiation and maintenance of atrial fibrillation: Tailored individual treatment|
|Number of pages||11|
|Publication status||Published - Jul 1 2018|
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