Normal and abnormal aggression: Human disorders and novel laboratory models

J. Haller, Menno R. Kruk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

146 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We review here aggression-related human psychopathologies and propose that human aggressiveness is mainly due to three major factors: (i) brain dysfunction affecting aggression-controlling brain centers (e.g. in certain types of brain lesions, epilepsy, Alzheimer disease, etc.); (ii) hypoarousal associated with chronically low plasma glucocorticoids, which foster violence by diminishing emotional barriers that limit such behaviors (e.g. in conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder); (iii) hyperarousal which leads to irritability and outbursts (e.g. in depression, intermittent explosive disorder, chronic fatigue, etc.). Different disorders are associated with different types of aggressiveness; e.g. hypoarousal is often associated with instrumental aggression, whereas hyperarousal is associated with uncontrollable outbursts. Many psychological disorders have been simulated in laboratory models, which were used to assess aggressiveness. Little effort was invested, however, in assessing the abnormal dimension of such aggressiveness. We present here three models that appear especially suitable to assess abnormal aspects of rodent aggression: (i) abnormal attack targeting (head, throat, and belly) that is induced by hypoarousal in rats and models violence in hypoarousal-driven human aggression (ii) 'escalated' aggression (increased aggressive response due to frustration or instigation), which models irritability and hyperarousal-driven aggressiveness; and (iii) context-independent attacks induced by hypothalamic stimulation or genetic manipulations. These three models address different aspects of abnormal aggressiveness, and can become extremely useful in three areas: in evaluating and assessing models of human psychopathologies, in studying transgenic animals, and in developing new treatment strategies. Research based on these or similar models do not address aggressiveness in quantitative terms, but follows the development of abnormal aspects, and the possibilities of their specific treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)292-303
Number of pages12
JournalNeuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Volume30
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2006

Fingerprint

Aggression
Psychopathology
Violence
Brain
Disruptive, Impulse Control, and Conduct Disorders
Antisocial Personality Disorder
Conduct Disorder
Genetically Modified Animals
Frustration
Pharynx
Glucocorticoids
Fatigue
Rodentia
Epilepsy
Alzheimer Disease
Head
Depression
Psychology
Research

Keywords

  • Abnormal
  • Aggression
  • Model
  • Violence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Behavioral Neuroscience

Cite this

Normal and abnormal aggression : Human disorders and novel laboratory models. / Haller, J.; Kruk, Menno R.

In: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, Vol. 30, No. 3, 2006, p. 292-303.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{e98fc3d250d04584bc294d2176961f70,
title = "Normal and abnormal aggression: Human disorders and novel laboratory models",
abstract = "We review here aggression-related human psychopathologies and propose that human aggressiveness is mainly due to three major factors: (i) brain dysfunction affecting aggression-controlling brain centers (e.g. in certain types of brain lesions, epilepsy, Alzheimer disease, etc.); (ii) hypoarousal associated with chronically low plasma glucocorticoids, which foster violence by diminishing emotional barriers that limit such behaviors (e.g. in conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder); (iii) hyperarousal which leads to irritability and outbursts (e.g. in depression, intermittent explosive disorder, chronic fatigue, etc.). Different disorders are associated with different types of aggressiveness; e.g. hypoarousal is often associated with instrumental aggression, whereas hyperarousal is associated with uncontrollable outbursts. Many psychological disorders have been simulated in laboratory models, which were used to assess aggressiveness. Little effort was invested, however, in assessing the abnormal dimension of such aggressiveness. We present here three models that appear especially suitable to assess abnormal aspects of rodent aggression: (i) abnormal attack targeting (head, throat, and belly) that is induced by hypoarousal in rats and models violence in hypoarousal-driven human aggression (ii) 'escalated' aggression (increased aggressive response due to frustration or instigation), which models irritability and hyperarousal-driven aggressiveness; and (iii) context-independent attacks induced by hypothalamic stimulation or genetic manipulations. These three models address different aspects of abnormal aggressiveness, and can become extremely useful in three areas: in evaluating and assessing models of human psychopathologies, in studying transgenic animals, and in developing new treatment strategies. Research based on these or similar models do not address aggressiveness in quantitative terms, but follows the development of abnormal aspects, and the possibilities of their specific treatment.",
keywords = "Abnormal, Aggression, Model, Violence",
author = "J. Haller and Kruk, {Menno R.}",
year = "2006",
doi = "10.1016/j.neubiorev.2005.01.005",
language = "English",
volume = "30",
pages = "292--303",
journal = "Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews",
issn = "0149-7634",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Normal and abnormal aggression

T2 - Human disorders and novel laboratory models

AU - Haller, J.

AU - Kruk, Menno R.

PY - 2006

Y1 - 2006

N2 - We review here aggression-related human psychopathologies and propose that human aggressiveness is mainly due to three major factors: (i) brain dysfunction affecting aggression-controlling brain centers (e.g. in certain types of brain lesions, epilepsy, Alzheimer disease, etc.); (ii) hypoarousal associated with chronically low plasma glucocorticoids, which foster violence by diminishing emotional barriers that limit such behaviors (e.g. in conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder); (iii) hyperarousal which leads to irritability and outbursts (e.g. in depression, intermittent explosive disorder, chronic fatigue, etc.). Different disorders are associated with different types of aggressiveness; e.g. hypoarousal is often associated with instrumental aggression, whereas hyperarousal is associated with uncontrollable outbursts. Many psychological disorders have been simulated in laboratory models, which were used to assess aggressiveness. Little effort was invested, however, in assessing the abnormal dimension of such aggressiveness. We present here three models that appear especially suitable to assess abnormal aspects of rodent aggression: (i) abnormal attack targeting (head, throat, and belly) that is induced by hypoarousal in rats and models violence in hypoarousal-driven human aggression (ii) 'escalated' aggression (increased aggressive response due to frustration or instigation), which models irritability and hyperarousal-driven aggressiveness; and (iii) context-independent attacks induced by hypothalamic stimulation or genetic manipulations. These three models address different aspects of abnormal aggressiveness, and can become extremely useful in three areas: in evaluating and assessing models of human psychopathologies, in studying transgenic animals, and in developing new treatment strategies. Research based on these or similar models do not address aggressiveness in quantitative terms, but follows the development of abnormal aspects, and the possibilities of their specific treatment.

AB - We review here aggression-related human psychopathologies and propose that human aggressiveness is mainly due to three major factors: (i) brain dysfunction affecting aggression-controlling brain centers (e.g. in certain types of brain lesions, epilepsy, Alzheimer disease, etc.); (ii) hypoarousal associated with chronically low plasma glucocorticoids, which foster violence by diminishing emotional barriers that limit such behaviors (e.g. in conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder); (iii) hyperarousal which leads to irritability and outbursts (e.g. in depression, intermittent explosive disorder, chronic fatigue, etc.). Different disorders are associated with different types of aggressiveness; e.g. hypoarousal is often associated with instrumental aggression, whereas hyperarousal is associated with uncontrollable outbursts. Many psychological disorders have been simulated in laboratory models, which were used to assess aggressiveness. Little effort was invested, however, in assessing the abnormal dimension of such aggressiveness. We present here three models that appear especially suitable to assess abnormal aspects of rodent aggression: (i) abnormal attack targeting (head, throat, and belly) that is induced by hypoarousal in rats and models violence in hypoarousal-driven human aggression (ii) 'escalated' aggression (increased aggressive response due to frustration or instigation), which models irritability and hyperarousal-driven aggressiveness; and (iii) context-independent attacks induced by hypothalamic stimulation or genetic manipulations. These three models address different aspects of abnormal aggressiveness, and can become extremely useful in three areas: in evaluating and assessing models of human psychopathologies, in studying transgenic animals, and in developing new treatment strategies. Research based on these or similar models do not address aggressiveness in quantitative terms, but follows the development of abnormal aspects, and the possibilities of their specific treatment.

KW - Abnormal

KW - Aggression

KW - Model

KW - Violence

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=32444446068&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=32444446068&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2005.01.005

DO - 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2005.01.005

M3 - Article

C2 - 16483889

AN - SCOPUS:32444446068

VL - 30

SP - 292

EP - 303

JO - Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews

JF - Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews

SN - 0149-7634

IS - 3

ER -