The paper reports on non-microscopical methods which allow for close investigation of ultrafine-grained metals especially of those processed by different techniques of Severe Plastic Deformation. These are as follows: (i) X-ray Bragg profile analysis, (ii) electrical residual resistivity, (iii) annealing calorimetry, and (iv) positron annihilation spectro-scopy. The advantage of these methods lies in their integration/averaging over a certain sample volume so that they are often much closer to macroscopic physical properties than methods of microscopy; furthermore, the values of quantities obtained are more reliable because of strictly objective rules of determination. Typical quantities being relevant for ultra-fine grained materials are (a) grain size and grain size distribution, (b) long range internal stresses, (c) dislocation densities, and (d) concentration of vacancies and/or vacancy agglomerates. While quantities (a) and (b) are important for all classes of ultra-fine grained materials, those of (c) and (d) particularly occur with nanomaterials processed by severe plastic deformation also being responsible for their specific features such as ductility and the presence of non-equilibrium phases.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Zeitschrift fuer Metallkunde/Materials Research and Advanced Techniques|
|Publication status||Published - Apr 1 2007|
- Severe Plastic Deformation
- X-ray diffraction
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Metals and Alloys